Year: 2016, vol: 64, number: 1
OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Vzťahy Uhorského a Českého kráľovstva v druhej polovici 60. rokov 15. storočia
(Relations between the Kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia in the Second Half of the 1460s)
Relations with the King of Bohemia George of Poděbrady were a key factor in the foreign policy of Mathias Corvinus from the beginning of his reign. Initially correct and close relations between Mathias and George later became more changeable as a result of the momentary interests of the monarchs. Their relations gradually became more complicated and cooler, finally leading to open conflict in 1468. The diplomatic ties between the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia in the period 1465 – 1469 are the subject of the present study. The territory of the Kingdom of Bohemia at this time was at the intersection of the interests of various European powers. Apart from Mathias Corvinus, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III, King Kazimír IV of Poland from the Jagiello dynasty, the Pope and various German dukes from the Wittelsbach and Hohenzollern dynasties were involved in Czech affairs. Apart from describing the relations between the Hungarian and Czech monarchs, the paper aims to put their steps into the context of international affairs in this period.
Mathias Corvinus. George of Poděbrady. Kingdom of Hungary. Kingdom of Bohemia. Diplomacy. 15th century.
Podíl českých vojáků na portugalsko-nizozemském konfliktu v Brazílii v 17. století
(The Participation of Czech Soldiers in the Portuguese – Netherlands Conflict in 17th Century Brazil)
The article deals with the activities of the first Czech visitors to Brazil. They travelled there as soldiers in the service of the Dutch West Indies Company (WIC). The company strove to establish commercial bases and colonies in the period 1630-1654 in conflict with the Portuguese, but in the end it failed. The theme is placed in the wider context of Dutch expansion in the Atlantic region, which reached its peak in the second quarter of the 17th century.
Dutch West Indies Company (WIC). Netherlands Republic. Brazil. Czech soldiers. Protestant emigrants.
FALISOVÁ Anna – MOROVICSOVÁ Eva
Príprava a pôsobenie pôrodných asistentiek na Slovensku v posledných desaťročiach 19. a v prvej tretine 20. storočia
(Preparation and Activity of Midwives in Slovakia in the Last Decades of the 19th Century and the First Third of the 20th Century)
Various categories of health workers provided care for the health of the population in the past. Midwives occupied an important place in this field. On the basis of study of archive materials and literature from the period, the author deals with the beginnings of institutionalized preparation of midwives, the activity of Dr. Ján Ambro, who significantly contributed to improving care for mothers, the activity of midwives and their contribution to care for the health of mothers and children. Special attention is devoted to schools for midwives and the reform of obstetrics.
Midwives. Dr. Ján Ambro. Mothers. Schools for midwives. Ministry of Public Health and Physical Education. Doctors of medicine.
BAHNA Miloslav – KRIVÝ Vladimír
Ako volili národnosti a konfesie v parlamentných voľbách roku 1929 na Slovensku. Možnosti nových metód ekologickej inferencie
(Voting Preferences of Nationalities and Denominations in the 1929 Parliamentary Elections in Slovakia. Results of New Methods of Ecological Inference)
Our study provides a comprehensive answer to the question of how the main nationalities and denominations in Slovakia voted in the third parliamentary elections in the Czechoslovak Republic. Using municipality level aggregate data, we apply two modern methods of ecological inference to provide an answer. Their reliability is tested using known nationality and denomination distributions from the 1930 Census that followed 13 months after the elections. Our results are based on the method proposed by Greiner and Quinn and evaluated in a confrontation with previous works on the electoral support for parties in the Czechoslovak Republic as well as analyses of politically, nationally and religiously homogeneous environments where ecological fallacy can be avoided. Our findings support the assertions about the importance of national and religious division lines in party support in late 1920s Slovakia.
1929 parliamentary elections in Slovakia. Ecological inference. Nationalities. Confessions. Electoral support. 1930 census. Political parties.
Vnútorné rozpory v Maďarskej strane v rokoch 1939 – 1945a nevydarené pokusy o odstránenie Jánosa Esterházyho z čela strany
(Internal Disputes in the Hungarian Party in 1939 – 1945 and Unsuccessful Attempts to Remove János Esterházy from the Leadership of the Party)
The history of the Hungarian Party in the first Slovak Republic has not been studied up to now. The leading figure in Hungarian politics in Slovakia was János Esterházy, who had to manoeuvre between the expectations of Bratislava, Budapest and Berlin. His rightist, Christian – conservative politics, which contained many contradictions and were not entirely compatible with the political orientation of Slovakia at the time, also had critics within his own party. The present study is concerned with internal disputes within the Hungarian Party and with attempts to reconstruct the party according to national socialist principles. The text also devotes detailed attention to the attempts to remove J. Esterházy from the leadership of the party and the views of Budapest and Berlin on this process.
Political history of Slovakia. Hungarian minority. János Esterházy. 1939–1945.
ŠPULEROVÁ Jana – DOBROVODSKÁ Marta – ŠTEFUNKOVÁ Dagmar – PISCOVÁ Veronika – PETROVIČ František
História vzniku a vývoja historických štruktúr tradične obhospodarovanej poľnohospodárskej krajiny
(History of the Origin and Development of the Historical Structures of Traditional Agricultural Landscape)
Traditional agricultural landscape (TAL) is represented by the original agricultural landscape, which developed during centuries as a result of settlement, deforestation and colonization, and has not lost the shape of a cultural-historical countryside. The primary land cover of the Slovak republic was mostly forest. The lowlands of Slovakia were settled by Slavs in the 9th – 11th centuries and mountain areas were colonized in 2 main phases: (1) The German colonization (13th – 14th century) and (2) The Walachian colonization (16th – 18th century). The outstanding feature was a landscape characterized by a high biodiversity and cultural mosaic because of the heterogeneity of land forms and cover, relief segmentation, and a variety of farming products. This landscape have been partially preserved as remnants only in less accessible and less fertile localities, as a large part of the landscape was transformed by intervention and intensification of agriculture in the second half of the 20th century. Based on the results of the countryside TAL inventory, we distinguished four classes of structures that represent the remnants of TALs: (1) TAL with Dispersed Settlement; (2) TAL of the Vineyards’; (3) TAL with Arable-Land, Grasslands and Orchards and (4) TAL with Arable-Land and Grasslands. Our study focuses on the genesis of TAL classes and their development, which has been formed during centuries.
Historic structures of the landscape. Agricultural landscape. Dispersed settlements. The vineyard landscape. Orchards.
MATERIÁLY / MATERIALS
Slovenský miestopis v Prahe (1918 – 1938)
(Slovak Place Names in Prague (1918 – 1938))
For Slovaks of the inter-war period, Prague the capital of their new Czechoslovak state represented an attractive place to search for employment opportunities, study, political activity and leisure activities. Drawing on memoir literature, the paper maps the Prague localities associated with the presence of Slovaks from various social groups. Accommodation of students in a monastic hostel in Hradčany, the Štefánik College and Academic House in the Straková Academy contributed to shaping the views of life and important cultural activities of members of the coming generation (Mladé Slovensko, Svojeť, Detvan, DAV). Artistic cafes and wine-bars provided communication between Slovakia and the Slovak intellectuals in Prague. The slight Slovakization of 1930s Prague was expressed in the society and publishing sphere with the formation of the Society of the Slovak House, establishment of editorial offices of Slovak newspapers and the opening of Ján Smrek’s so-called Slovak Consulate. The Zlatá hus (Golden Goose) Hotel became the traditional place for holding commercial, political and informal meetings between Slovaks.
Inter-war Prague. Place names. Slovak – Czech relations. Memoir literature.
DISKUSIA / DISCUSSION
ULIČNÝ Ferdinand, Evolučný, živelný alebo zakladateľský, privilegiálny pôvod mešťanov a miest na Slovensku? S. 153
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
PÁLFFY Géza – SOLTÉSZ Gábor Ferenc – TÓTH Csaba, Coronatus Posonii…Bratislavské korunovačné medaily a žetóny 1563 – 1830 / A pozsonyi magyar uralkodókoronázások érmei 1563–1830 (János Buza) S. 161
HEINDL Waltraud, Josephinische mandarine. Bürokratie und Beamte in Österreich. Band 2: 1848 – 1914. Studien zu Politik und Verwaltung, Band 107 (Elena Mannová) S. 163
MOSNÝ Peter – LACLAVÍKOVÁ Miriam, Dejiny štátu a práva na území Slovenska II. 1848 – 1948 (Ján Drgo) S. 167
TEICH Mikuláš, The Scientific Revolution Revisited (Antonie Doležalová) S. 169
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK