Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 1–3.
Saving Ghana's Revolution: The Demise of Kwame Nkrumah and the
Evolution of Soviet Policy in Africa, 1966–1972
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 4–25.
On 24 February 1966, Ghana's first president, Kwame Nkrumah, was overthrown in a coup d’état. The coup rekindled a debate within the Soviet bloc about the prospects of socialism in Africa and about the appropriateness of certain policies. Soviet officials concluded that they would have to focus on establishing close relations with the armies and internal security forces of African countries. This article explores how Nkrumah's loyalists in exile and their sympathizers in Ghana attempted to launch a leftwing counter-coup in Accra in 1968 and the involvement of Warsaw Pact countries—notably the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia—in those events. The article sheds new light on “Operation ALEX,” a botched attempt by the Czechoslovak intelligence service to support Nkrumah loyalists in their plans for a countercoup. The article reexamines the late 1960s as an important period for the militarization of the Cold War in Africa and highlights the crucial role that African politicians themselves played in this process.
Between Business Interests and Ideological Marketing: The USSR and the
Cold War in Fiat Corporate Strategy, 1957–1972
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 26–64.
This article analyzes the landmark deal between the Italian automobile corporation Fiat and the Soviet government to build and operate the Volga Automobile Factory (VAZ). Drawing on formerly closed corporate records and declassified Soviet documents, the article traces how the Cold War helped shape the strategy of a West European multinational corporation in its attempts to manipulate the national and international political context in which it was acting. In Fiat's strategy toward the uncertain Soviet market, car production represented more of a bridgehead than an ultimate objective. Fiat's Ostpolitik was carefully planned and coordinated with the U.S. government and with other large Italian businesses. Italian-Soviet cooperation in building VAZ, the symbol of material well-being and peaceful industrial reconstruction, facilitated the requests of Soviet officials and Western corporations to lift East-West trade restrictions on non-strategic goods, thus conferring political legitimacy on trade with the Soviet Union.
Assassination and Judicial Misconduct in Cold War Greece: The
Polk/Staktopoulos Case in Retrospect
John O. Iatrides
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 65-126.
In May 1948, as the Cold War escalated and the Communist insurgency in Greece intensified, the assassination of CBS News journalist George Polk in Salonica became an international cause célèbre. Polk had openly criticized the Greek government and questioned the U.S. government's support of an undemocratic regime. Most probably, he was killed trying to reach an insurgent command post to interview guerrilla leaders about the civil war. With no claims of responsibility for the murder and no credible forensic evidence, suspicions of culpability fell on many actors, including the Communists, extreme rightwing elements, common criminals, and rogue British intelligence operatives. Although responsibility for identifying and bringing to justice the guilty fell squarely on the Greek authorities, the country's heavy dependence on U.S. assistance enabled U.S. officials and journalists to influence the case. Eager to blame the crime on the Communists and produce quick results, Greek police and justice officials fabricated a case against two known Communists (never apprehended) and a small-time reporter, Gregory Staktopoulos, whose incoherent confessions were clearly coerced. Staktopoulos's trial, conviction, long imprisonment, and failed appeals to the country's highest court left an indelible stigma on Greek justice. Polk's murder—which has never been solved—and Staktopoulos's cruel fate illustrate the powerfully corrosive impact of Cold War perceptions and priorities on the institutions of Western democracies.
Shattered Hopes amid Violent Repression: The 1956 Hungarian Revolution
and the United Nations (Part 2)
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 127-153.
Few historical events over the past 70 years have rivaled the 1956 Hungarian revolution in its domestic and international impact. The research presented in the first part of this article (published in the Fall 2017 issue of the journal), which was based largely on recently declassified archival documents, focused on a specific aspect of the international response to the revolution—namely, the efforts of the United Nations (UN) to deal with urgent events during and immediately after the revolution. This second part focuses on the tragic consequences of the revolution, including trials, imprisonments, and executions, in the years that followed. The limitations of the UN in this instance have rarely been discussed, particularly by the organization's supporters. The silence surrounding these issues has affected dissidents and others throughout the world confronting dictatorial regimes. An understanding of what went wrong is crucial if the UN is to be more effective in the future.
Screening Migrants in the Early Cold War: The Geopolitics of U.S.
Peter J. Verovšek
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 154-179.
The main elements of U.S. immigration policy date back to the early Cold War. One such element is a screening process initially designed to prevent infiltration by Communist agents posing as migrants from East-Central Europe. The development of these measures was driven by geopolitical concerns, resulting in vetting criteria that favored the admission of hardline nationalists and anti-Communists. The argument proceeds in two steps. First, the article demonstrates that geopolitics influenced immigration policy, resulting in the admission of extremist individuals. Second, it documents how geopolitical concerns and the openness of U.S. institutions provided exiles with the opportunity to mobilize politically. Although there is little evidence that the vetting system succeeded in preventing the entry of Communist subversives into the United States, it did help to create a highly mobilized anti-Communist ethnic lobby that supported extremist policies vis-à-vis the Soviet Union during the early Cold War.
Danish Cold War Historiography
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 180–211.
For decades, little research on Danish Cold War history was conducted either inside or outside Denmark. The relevant archives were closed, and generations of Danish contemporary historians were primarily interested in what happened during World War II. This is no longer the situation. Over the past 35 years, especially since the end of the Cold War, researchers have scrutinized Danish Cold War history in great depth. By now, scholarly research in Denmark on the Cold War, especially in the area of Danish national security affairs and foreign policy, has reached a level that merits international attention, and this survey article provides an overview. The article encourages Danish Cold War scholars to promote comparative research that incorporates Danish Cold War history into the wider international Cold War scholarship, to the benefit of both Danish and international research.
The USSR, Asia, and the End of the Cold War: Perspectives on Unwanted
Nicholas Khoo, Balázs Szalontai, and Sergey Radchenko
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 212–226.
To Kill Nations: American Strategy in the Air-Atomic Age and the Rise
of Mutually Assured Destruction
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 227–229.
Mecca of Revolution: Algeria, Decolonization, and the Third World
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 229–232.
College Football and American Culture in the Cold War Era
Gerald R. Gems
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 232–234.
Everyone Loses: The Ukraine Crisis and the Ruinous Contest for
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 234–235.
U.S. Foreign Policy and the Other
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 236–237.
The Lucky Few: The Fall of Saigon and the Rescue Mission of the USS
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 237–239.
The Gatekeeper: Missy LeHand, FDR, and the Untold Story of the
Partnership That Defined a Presidency
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 239–241.
Fallen Astronauts: Heroes Who Died Reaching for the Moon
David M. Harland
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 241–243.
The Colonels’ Coup and the American Embassy: A Diplomat's View of the
Breakdown of Democracy in Cold War Greece
George Th. Mavrogordatos
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 243–245.
Winning the Third World: Sino-American Rivalry during the Cold War?
Shadow Cold War: The Sino-Soviet Competition for the Third World
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 245–248.
Poverty in Common: The Politics of Community Action during the
Daniel M. Cobb
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 248–250.
Armchair Warriors: Private Citizens, Popular Press and the Rise of
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 250–251.
Moro: L'inchiesta senza finale.
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 251–254.
Israel in the American Mind: The Cultural Politics of US-Israeli
Thomas A. Dine
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 254–256.
The Last Days of Stalin
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 256–258.
The Balkans in the Cold War
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 258–262.
Envisioning the Arab Future: Modernization in U.S.-Arab Relations,
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 262–264.
The Feathers of Condor: Transnational State Terrorism, Exiles and
Civilian Anticommunism in South America
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 264–266.
The Age of Eisenhower: America and the World in the 1950s
David M. Watry
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 266–268.
Revolutionaries of the Right: Anti-Communist Internationalism and
Paramilitary Violence in the Cold War
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 268–270.
Sovereign Soldiers: How the U.S. Military Transformed the Global
Economy after World War II
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 270–272.
20 Jahre neue Bundesrepublik: Kontinuitäten und Diskontinuitäten
Journal of Cold War Studies, Vol. 20, No. 4: 272–274.