ČESKÝ ČASOPIS HISTORICKÝ / THE CZECH HISTORICAL REVIEW
STUDIE / STUDIES
Proměna nobilitační politiky podunajské monarchie
po roce 1848 … S. 535
(Transformation of the nobilitation policy of the Danube Monarchy after 1848)
After 1848, most of the noble privileges were cancelled in the Danube Monarchy and noble titles transformed into a special form of state honour, the character of which was exceptional in its form. Nobilitation ad personam never occurred, because it contradicted Hungarian law. The nobility was the appreciation of merit as such; the title, which in the previous centuries represented an important symbol of the social and power position of the individual and the family, was newly dependent only on the position honoured on the social ladder. In that, the state logically favoured civil servants (officials and officers). A slightly different aristocratic policy was practiced in Austria and Hungary. The extraordinary increase in nobilitations that occurred after the middle of the 19th century and the weakening of the position of the nobility as a result of the changes after 1848 resulted in the closure of the family aristocracy and it further deepened the already deep moat between the old and the new nobility. The failed policy of creation of the elites is one of the causes of the rapid abolition of aristocracy after 1918.
Key words: nobility – Austria-Hungary – transformation of the elites – history
The beginning of the end of the traditional aristocracy was the Enlightenment reforms in the Habsburg monarchy, which significantly reduced the rights of the manorial lords in the area of the judiciary. The noble privileges across Europe then underwent a major revision as a result of the French Revolution. Austria did not experience such radical changes as in France or southern Germany, but in return the bureaucratic-absolutist state assumed ever great authorities. The real watershed is the Revolution of 1848 and its consequences (abolition of the Estates Society, removal of the institution of serfdom, end of fiefs, etc.). Thus, the nobility retained essentially only the right to use titles and coats of arms, which were the main distinctive elements that differentiated them from the rest of society. Although discussions on the abolition of noble titles were held during the meeting of the Kroměřiž Diet, the relevant law was never adopted. During the following years, the aristocracy was transformed into a special form of state honour, whose character was exceptional and exclusive in its hereditary form. Nobilitation ad personam never occurred, because it contradicted Hungarian law. The important thing was that the reward as such was represented by the nobility, the title (simple von, knight, baron) was dependent on the rank honoured on the social ladder. The state logically favoured civil servants – officials and officers. Only the titles of count and prince were reserved for the old nobility.
After 1867, there was also a significant increase in Hungarian nobilitations. Here, fewer noble titles were initially granted, mainly due to the lower representation of the upper middle class among the local population. The almost continuous growth of Hungarian nobilitations can therefore be observed from the mid-1870s, but rather from the end of the 19th century. An important role in this respect was played by the sovereign’s ordinance of 1894, stating that Hungarian citizens can only obtain Hungarian titles. It was a consequence of Budapest’s attempt to create a loyal Hungarian-language elite in Hungary.
Moreover, the extraordinary increase in nobilitations and the weakening of the positions of the family nobility as a result of the dissolution of the Estates Society led to another problem: the closure of the family aristocracy, because, in the second half of the 19th century, the aristocracy lost most of the privileges that made it a privileged elite, and its social status continued to depend solely on the possibility of participating in events at the sovereign’s court. This resulted in the definitive disintegration of the noble society into two completely different and incompatible groups: the aristocracy and the new nobility.
From the distance of more than a hundred years, the main problems of the Danube noble policy can be summarized in several closely related points: 1) the transformation of nobility from a social state into honour while maintaining the principle of the inheritance of the title, 2) the incompatibility between the noble title granted and the economic situation, 3) the emergence of a closed court society representing a replacement of the former noble privileges, which were almost exclusively defined on the basis of ancient origin, 4) a rapidly changing and radicalizing society that was no longer willing to tolerate hereditary privileges. This situation had serious consequences. The number of people who had the social and economic prerequisites to become nobles grew, but they did not seek to be elevated to the nobility. Not surprisingly, after 1918, noble titles were quickly abolished in most of the successor states.
Krátkodobá migrace z českých zemí do Latinské Ameriky
v 1. polovině 20. století: případová studie provázaných dějin … S. 586
(Short-term migration from the Czech Lands to Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century: Case study in entangled history)
The present text deals with the phenomenon of short-term mobility from the Czech Lands to Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century, within the frame of the methodological approaches of entangled history and study of cultural transfers. Reflected are specific life histories, but also the general mechanisms of cultural and economic interchange as well as the perceptions, by the migrants themselves, of their place in the world, their “home” and their identity, on the basis of such sources as memoirs, letters and official reports, but also oral histories and family histories. The comings and goings of labor migrants left profound marks upon culture of the sending as well as receiving societies, and of the Atlantic region (in the broadest sense) in general.
Key words: short-term migration – labor migration – entangled history – cultural transfer – Czech Lands – Latin America – 20th century
The present text deals with the phenomenon of short‑term mobility from the Czech Lands to Latin America in the first half of the twentieth century, within the frame of the methodological approaches of entangled history and study of cultural transfers. It tries to react to and argue with the older studies in the history of migrations that were accentuating the differences between the sending and receiving societies, perceiving the migrants as essentially uprooted and focusing on the rapidity of their acculturation, or else praising their perseverance in maintaining their identity and culture in the inimical conditions.
The temporary migrants, more mobile, likely to associate with workers of different nationalities, did not leave much trace in the sources. The article exploits such documents as memoirs, letters and official reports, but also oral histories and family histories. The migrations to Latin America, instead of United States, was chosen to show similarities and divergences in the mechanisms of information and cultural transfer.
Taken into account was the long tradition of seasonal and short‑term labor mobility within and outside Central Europe, existing in some parts of the Czech Lands, and the already established social mechanisms for accommodating the absences and returns, the “culture of mobility“, a collective coping with and taking advantage of the willingness to travel of part of their members, adjusting to their absences the existing norms, values and ideologies. Still, the overseas sojourns were different from previous models of labor mobility.
There were not only unskilled or semi‑skilled day labourers, but also specialized workers in various fields (railroad builders, construction workers and factory workers, beer‑brewers, sugar‑makers, musicians; kitchen maids, servants and nursery governesses). Their skill gave them sense of superiority over local labor, even a sense of civilization mission of spreading European/Czech skills in the undeveloped regions.
Reflected are specific life histories, but also the general mechanisms of cultural and economic interchange as well as the perceptions, by the migrants themselves, of their place in the world, their „home“ and their identity. The comings and goings of labor migrants left profound marks upon culture of the sending as well as receiving societies, and of the Atlantic region (in the broadest sense) in general. After returning, through transmitting to their native community information, remittances, or putting into practice knowledge gained abroad, they drew their stay‑at‑home relations, friends and countrymen into the Atlantic systém of economic and cultural interchange.
Polští váleční uprchlíci v Tel Avivu (1939–1948).
Portrét prostředí … S. 613
(Polish war refugees in Tel Aviv /1939–1948/. A portrait of the community)
The purpose of these reflections is to show the specificity of the community of Polish refugees in Tel Aviv. In 1939–1948, an important centre of Polish pro- -independence emigration emerged there. The refugees led an active national (social, cultural and political) life. The author attempts to paint the collective portrait of this community, and analyses its occupational structure, gender and age distribution, ethnic and religious diversity, political nature and value system, the nature of social activities, and problems of everyday life.
Key words: Polish war refugees – Polish pro-independence emigration in Palestine – Poles in Tel Aviv 1939–1948 – collective portrait
In 1939–1948, an important centre of Polish pro‑independence emigration emerged in Tel Aviv. In January 1945 2,291 Polish civilian war refugees resided there (6,718 in all of the Holy Land). Palestine was at the time a Mandatory Territory of the League of Nations, governed by Great Britain. The refugees attempted to create a semblance of home abroad. They led an active national (social, cultural and political) life. Numerous Polish organisations and associations, schools, healthcare and pastoral service were organised in Tel Aviv, and books and newspapers were published.
Despite their diversity, the refugees created a community which differed from the local one, and had its own life and problems. It also had clear distinguishing features – it included a large percentage of ill and lonely persons who required care; it had a high rate of feminisation, an atypical social and occupational structure (a high percentage of intelligentsia and freelance professions), and a varied ethnic and religious composition. The refugees included many members of pre‑war elites, scientists, people of culture and politicians.
The majority of the Poles declared their attachment to national values and supported independent Poland. However, this was also accompanied by negative phenomena – political divisions, internal feuds and scheming. Most refugees settled for a welfare benefit and did not look for work. The unlikelihood of returning home in the near future led to frustration. In some people, war experiences weakened ethical and moral standards; some came into conflict with the law.
The lot of the Poles from Tel Aviv showed in a nutshell the problems of pro‑independence emigration: (1) an interest in politics pervaded their lives; (2) material concerns caused increasing worry – benefits were sufficient to prevent starvation, but not enough to live a decent life; (3) the intelligentsia’s lack of structural and social adjustment to life in new conditions; (4) awareness of having no say in changing the political situation in the homeland.
ŠVAŘÍČKOVÁ SLABÁKOVÁ Radmila
Česká generační paměť druhé světové války … S. 637
(The Czech Generational Memory of the Second World War)
The article adds to Second World War memory research by presenting the outcomes of a recent empirical survey conducted with two generations in the present‑day Czech Republic. One generation lived the majority of their lives under Communism while the second generation was born after the fall of Communism. The analysis revealed an important generational gap in the way the Second World War is remembered and perceived. While the older generation preferred to construct the Second World War rather as a set of home events focused on the traditional „Communist“ narrative of persecution and resistance, the younger generation tended to perceive the Second World War in more abstract, globalized and „western“ terms with the Holocaust as a key element. The article emphasizes a fact important for the present‑day Czech collective identities; this means the tendency of the young generation to perceive the war in abstract terms, but incorporating a home narrative of suffering.
Key words: Memory – Generation – Second World War – historical consciousness – Czech identity
The article explores the ways in which the Second World War is remembered and perceived in the present‑day Czech Republic. In the introduction, the importance of the research on Second World War memory, representing one of the four founding memories of common European identities, is recalled. While there is a great amount of research on memory of the Second World War in Europe and the USA, including research on generational memory, Czech research has only focused on the ways in which the Second World War is thematised and instrumentalized in a few studies.
The presentation of the topic begins with a description of a survey which was conducted in 2015. Its aim was to explore changes in the previous Communist narrative of the Second World War and to examine generational differences. Two generations were selected for the analysis: the older one, who lived the majority of their lives under Communism, and the young one, who was born after the fall of Communism. Methodologically, the research was inspired by the studies of James V. Wertsch on post‑soviet collective memory of the Second World War. 233 participants took part in the survey, 115 in the older, 108 in the younger generation. The average age in the older generation was 66 years of age, in the young generation 21 years of age.
All the participants had to fill in an anonymous survey containing three questions. The first question was „What does the Second World War mean for you personally?“ and showed an important generational gap. While both generations perceived the Second World War as an „evil“, the young generation tended to have a more abstract and globalized narrative and emphasized the Holocaust and the emotional suffering from the Holocaust as key elements. The five most important events of the war, the second task of the participants, were represented predominantly by home events in the older generation, while the young generation tended to recount events typical for the western European narrative.
The third question involved a description of the course of home events during the Second World War. A generational gap was perceived once again. The older generation thematised the war as a traditional national discourse with repression and resistance as the main factors. The young generation provided an abstracted and generalized narrative and only exceptionally evoked their family memories or regional events. The traditional elements of „home suffering“ were adopted, however, by the young generation and incorporated into their globalized narratives. The article emphasizes the importance of this finding for Czech collective identities. A double narrative of suffering may exclude the need of responsibilities for what happened during the war on the territory of the present‑day Czech Republic.
Materiály / Materials
HORČÁKOVÁ Václava – KUBÍČEK Jaromír
Současný stav společenskovědní bibliografie
v českých zemích … S. 666
(The Current State of the Social Science Bibliography in the Czech Lands)
The analysis of the bibliographic production issued by specialized workplaces and libraries in last decade evaluates the field, personal and regional inventories published in book, journal or electronic form. It acquaints the reader with conferences devoted to the contemporary problems of bibliography. It describes the content and method of processing bibliographic inventories of history, literature and other fields of the social sciences, which have been published since 2009 in the Czech lands.
Key words: field bibliography – personal bibliography – regional bibliography – social sciences
The work presented is dedicated to an analysis of the social science bibliography issued by specialized institutions and libraries in 2009–2018 and to the methodological development of bibliographic activity in the last decade. The number of bibliographies issued in print is not decreasing. The majority of the institutions have already resolved the transition to the digital age, are creating their own databases and thus can focus more on the production of printed outputs.
The vast majority of scientific disciplines maintain their own bibliographies, albeit mostly in the form of databases, and publish smaller, thematic bibliographies in print. Field bibliographies function mainly thanks to the institutes of the Academy of Sciences and some (predominantly Moravian) universities. The most numerous group of bibliographies published in the past decade is comprised of personal bibliographies. The development of regional and local history work was also reflected in the rich bibliographic publication activity of libraries in the individual regions of the Czech Republic. The leading role here belongs to the state scientific (regional) libraries, but even some smaller libraries and museums devote themselves to bibliographic activity. However, publications have an uneven level of processing, and their availability is also a common problem.
The societal need for reliable, categorized information is also reflected in the fact that the Czech central analytical bibliography system has once again found itself among the priorities of the Government’s Concept for the Development of Libraries in the Czech Republic for 2017–2020. This provides bibliography with good perspectives for the coming years.
Diskuse / Discussion
Utváření politické a kulturní identity
ve slovanských zemích. Kosmas, Gallus a Nestor … S. 695
(The Formation of political and cultural identity in Slavic lands: Cosmas, Gallus and Nestor)
The Chronicle by Dean Cosmas, Gesta by Gallus Anonymus and Povesť vremennych let (Tale of Bygone Years) by the monk Nestor present an identification retrospective of the already Christianized Bohemian, Polish and Old- Rus’ societies from the beginning of the 12th century. Although in terms of genre they are (in their introductory passages) categorized in the literary works of the „origo gentis“ type (Alheydis Plassmann, 2006), they are not merely a „rhetorical exercise“ for the narrow ecclesiastical elite but build on the long‑term trend of targeted acculturational transformations since the 9th century (vitae, memoriae, rituals). However, despite a similar mythology, linguistic proximity and the specific role of Old Church Slavonic, the Slavic ethnicity and states consolidate in European regional frameworks (not as a „Slavic world“).
Key words: Christianization of Bohemia, Poland and Kievan Rus’ – origo gentis in the Early Middle Ages – Nestor, Cosmas and Gallus – the „magical“ role of women in early society – the dynastic legends of the Přemyslids, Rurikids and Piasts.
Obzory literatury / Review articles and reviews
Od proletářů k Maovi: levicové výzvy v odcházejícím světě … S. 723
(From Proles to Mao: Leftist Challenges in a Disappearing World)
Fremde, Freunde, Feinde. Wahrnehmung und Bewertung von Fremden in den Chroniken des Gallus Anonymus und des Cosmas von Prag
(Martin Wihoda) … S. 732
Jan Lucemburský. Dějiny bouřlivého života a hrdinné smrti českého krále a lucemburského hraběte v jednadvaceti obrazech
(Petr Čornej) … S. 735
Dvě polské publikace o Janu Husovi:
Jan Hus. Życie i dzieło, w 600 rocznicę śmerci
Jan Hus. Życie, myśl, dziedzictwo
(Jana Nechutová) … S. 739
József LASZLOVSZKY a kol.
The Economy of Medieval Hungary
(Peter Bučko) … S. 742
Excommunication for Debt in Late Medieval France.
The Business of Salvation
(Alexandra Kaar) … S. 747
Visitationen am Reichskammergericht. Speyer als politische und juristischer Aktionsraum des Reiches (1529–1588)
(Petr Kreuz) … S. 750
Život na šľachtickom dvore. Odev – Strava – Domácnosť – Hygiena – Voľný čas
(Jiří Hrbek) … S. 753
Petr MAREŠ (ed.)
Korespondence Albrechta Pětipeského z Chýš a Egrberku z let 1570–1596
(Marek Starý) … S. 756
Polyxena z Lobkovic. Obdivovaná i nenáviděná první dáma království
(Martin Holý) … S. 763
Kniha představených kolínské synagogy 1730–1783.
Překlad a regesta s úvodní analýzou pramene
(Ivana Ebelová) … S. 767
Migrační strategie. Město, předměstí a vesnice na panství České Budějovice ve druhé polovině 18. století
(Ivana Čornejová) … S. 770
Il Sultano e lo Zar. Due Imperi a confronto
(Martin Monckal Smutný) … S. 772
Sozialismus und Arbeiterbewgung in Deutschland und Österreich. Von den Anfängen bis 1914
(Jakub Raška) … S. 776
Vatikán a italský fašismus 1922–1945
(Tom Petráček) … S. 778
Od Československé národní demokracie k Národnímu sjednocení
(Petr Prokš) … S. 781
Demographic Avant-Garde. Jews in Bohemiabetween the Enlightenment and the Shoah
(Ivana Ebelová) … S. 784
Politika antisemitismu a holokaust na Slovensku v rokoch 1938–1945
(Jan Rychlík) … S. 786
Jan HORSKÝ – Miroslav HROCH (eds.)
Sto let. Hodnota svobody, nebo cena za nezávislost?
(Adam Vaňhara) … S. 790
Polly LOHMANN (Hg.)
Historische Graffiti als Quellen. Methoden und Perspektiven eines jungen Forschungsbereichs
(Eva Semotanová) … S. 793
Małgorzata PAKIER – Joanna WAWRZYNIAK (edd.)
Memory and change in Europe: Eastern Perspectives
(Stanislav Holubec) … S. 797
Zprávy o literatuře … S. 800
Z vědeckého života / Chronicle
Monumenta Germaniae Historica – 200 let … S. 832
Stanislav Polák (4. ledna 1936 – 1. prosince 2017)
(Jaroslav Pánek) … S. 840
Vojtěch Lahoda (30. července 1955 – 18. března 2019)
(Jiří Pešek) … S. 844
Knihy a časopisy došlé redakci … S. 849
Výtahy z českých časopisů a sborníků … S. 849