Studia Historica Nitriensia 17 (2013), 2

Titel der Ausgabe 
Studia Historica Nitriensia 17 (2013), 2
Weiterer Titel 

€ 12,00 per year



Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

MITÁŠ, Vladimír – FURMÁNEK, Václav
Zvieracie kosti v žiarových hroboch západnej enklávy juhovýchodných popolnicových polí so zreteľom na lokalitu Radzovce – Monosa
(Animal Bones in the Cremation Graves of the Western Enclave of the Southeastern Urnfield Cultures from the Perspective of the Site in Radzovce – Monosa)
pp. 3–20

Following paper is focused on the occurrence of animal bones in the standard grave closed finds of the western enclave of the cultural complex of the Southeastern Urnfield cultures. The issue is elaborated with regard to the cremation burial ground of the Middle to Late Bronze Age in Radzovce, dist. Lučenec. It was excavated during the 20th century almost completely. With its 1334 unearthed graves it belongs to the largest necropolises of this period in Central Europe. In addition to human bones burnt, as well as unburnt animal bones were identified in 91 graves. Their occurrence is probably related to the specific practices of the burial rite – placing the portions of animal meat (food offerings/sacrificial gifts) either to a deceased on the pyre, or directly into the grave. To the validity of this interpretation similar archaeological finds indicate, as well as ancient and medieval written sources and ethnological observations of modern times. Analysed cattle, goat/sheep and pig bones are brought into the context with the inner chronology of the burial ground.

Keywords: Slovakia; Cultural Complex of the Southeastern Urnfields; Cremation Graves; Animal Bones; Archaeozoology

BARTL, Július
Mestá a mestečká Nitrianskej župy v stredoveku
(The Cities and Towns within Nitra County in Medieval Period)
pp. 21–42

The territory of Nitra region was quite densely populated since primeval ages. This trend continued during medieval period, after establishment of Hungarian state, as well as in centuries of early modern period. Consequently was developing the network of cities and towns, which meditated the exchange of goods within local markets, as well as in more distant areas. At the beginning of 16th century only one independent royal city (Skalica) could be found on this territory, except that several cities and more than 20 towns. The differentiation in between cities and towns is quite problematic due to fact, that some royal cities known in 14th century changed ownership into hands of noblemen, thus became towns and were not able to uphold the status of city.

Keywords: cities; towns; markets; Nitra county; medieval times

História Čachtického hradu od jeho počiatkov po obdobie rozpadu na zrúcaninu
(To the History of the Čachtice Castle from its Beginnings till its Transformation into Ruin)
pp. 43–63

The Čachtice Castle was built in the second half of the 13th century. Brothers – counts Pongrác and Peter from family Hunt-Poznan – can be considered its founders. During the period 1437 – 1567 the most significant owners were members of Orzag family (Országh de Gut). Michal Orzag achieved the highest social rank. He successively carried out functions of royal treasurer, house-master and finally, he held the office of the palatine. After the extinction of family Orzag, the castle came into the possession of families Nádasdy, Drugeth, Forgách and Révay. From this period we have several descriptions of the castle´s internal division at disposal. These documents are the only evidence describing the destroyed spaces.

Keywords: The Čachtice Castle; Noble family Hunt-Poznan; Noble family Országh

NEMEŠ, Jaroslav
Uhorsko v 16. storočí: prísahy vernosti a poslušnosti cirkevných osôb
(Hungary in the 16th Century : The Oaths of Fidelity and Obedience of Ecclesiastical Persons)
pp. 64–79

The author of the paper attempts to clarify one of the still unclear issues of the early modern Hungarian church history. In the modern history of Hungary, most instrumental in the institute of oaths were Nikolaus Olahus, Archbishop of Esztergom, and Ferenc Forgách, Bishop of Nitra. The former began to use them in a large scale thanks to which they became a custom. The latter issued a practical “handbook” on them in the form of statute by which he unified their form and content. Thinking about the oath in the church in general, one must take into consideration two periods, with the Council of Trent as a turning point. After the latter the pledging was changed into the general profession of faith.

Keywords: History; Hungary; Church; 16th Century; Oaths of Fidelity and Obedience

ŠMÍD, Marek
Apoštolská nunciatura v Praze v meziválečném období
(Apostolic Nunciature in Prague in the interwar Czechoslovakia)
pp. 80–92

The study focuses on the changes in Apostolic Nunciature in Prague in the interwar Czechoslovakia. It is not only an approximation to the personalities of Holy See envoys, who held the position of apostolic nuncio in that time – Clemente Micara (1879 – 1965), Francesco Marmaggi (1870 – 1949), Pietro Ciriaci (1885 –1966) and Saverio Ritter (1884 – 1951) – while at the same time their agenda and activities in the Czechoslovak affairs. It strives to be a comprehensive survey, which deals with the current administration office, personnel, buildings or financial issues that were part of their everyday life in the background of the Church history in the First Republic (1918 – 1938). Taking into consideration that the Czech archives do not offer a sufficient basis for this probe, the study is primarily based on the research the Vatican Secret Archives in Rome.

Keywords: Apostolic Nuntiature; papal nuncio; Czechoslovakia 1918 – 1938; Holy See

Between Latinité and Aliança Peninsular: Mediterranean thought in search of Renewal
(Mezi Latinité a Aliança Peninsular)
pp. 93–111

Článek se zabývá třemi nadnárodními projekty západního Středomoří z počátku 20. století. António Sardinha, Juan Vázquez de Mella a Charles Maurras pojímali západní Středomoří jako kulturní jednotku, jejíž obyvatelé a regiony sdílejí podobné hodnoty, tradice a dějiny. Jako tradicionalisté chápali iberskou/latinskou Evropu také jako hráz proti modernitě a údajné dekadenci. Zatímco iberští myslitelé odkazovali na společnou iberskou intelektuální tradici, Maurras pojímal "latinské Středomoří" jako součást širšího konceptu "Panlatinité". Všechny tři koncepty vyplývaly z odlišných situací a kontextů, ale byly tu i významné rozdíly (vztah k Německu). Jejich defenzivní a tradicionalistický charakter vedl k tomu, že byly přijatelné v konzervativních kruzích a pravděpodobně přispěly i ke sbližování Frankova Španělska, Salazarova Estado Novo a Pétainova režimu Vichy (Acción Española, Integralismo Lusitano, Action française a jejich dědicové).

Keywords: Mediterranean; Conservatism; Anti-modernism; Iberism; Supranational identity


PALÁRIK, Miroslav
První část návrhu museologie pro venkovská musea a návrh směrnic pro národopis v musejních sbírkách
(First Part of the Proposal Museology for Country Museums and Draft Guidelines for Ethnography in the Museums´ Collections)
pp. 112–129

Following paper deals with the preparation of draft guidelines for museums´ staff in the interwar period. Described is the historical background of the document, presented is the main content and interpreted is the introduction into museum practice in given era. Prepared directive should have helped the employees in country museums to improve the quality of museological documentation in various regions of Czechoslovakia. The author of the document was museologist, historian and ethnologist – Josef František Svoboda.

Keywords: museology; Czechoslovakia; Jozef František Svoboda; museums

Návrh stanov Zväzu slovenských muzeálnych, galerijných pracovníkov a pracovníkov pamiatkovej starostlivosti na Slovensku
(The Draft Statutes of the Slovak Museums´, Galleries´ and National Heritage Care employees Association in Slovakia)
pp. 130–141

Reform trends in Slovak museums resulted in the preparation of the Action Programme in the year 1968. It included the idea of Slovak Association of Museums revival, which was cancelled in 1960. Following article discusses the document dealing with the form of new association. Outlined are also the reasons and incentives leading to the need to establish a professional organization, with notes and activities done on the soil of Czech museums.

Keywords: museology in Slovakia; Slovak museums; Association of Slovak Museums; Action programe

Sonda do propagácie slovenských múzeí v prvej polovici 70. rokov 20. storočia
(Probe into the Promotion of Slovak Museums in the First Half of 1970s´)
pp. 142–170

Following article deals with the questions of Slovak museums´ promotion in the period 1970 – 1975. This topic offers large space for research. Article focuses mainly on the material base of the promotional resources. This was an integral part of the museological activities. As main source for research were used annual reports on the activities of Slovak museums. The results showed, that the scale of promotional sources did not changed significantly, only the usage of internet brought considerable impulse into the museums´promotion.

Keywords: museology; promotional sources; Slovak museums; 1970 – 1975


Andreas Osiander starší – jeden z teoretikov reformácie
(Andreas Osiander Sr. – Theorist of Reformation)
pp. 171–177

Although he did not achieve a degree in theology, Andreas Osiander was very educated man. During years 1520 – 1548 he lived and worked in Norimberg and in following three years (1549 – 1552) in Königsberg. In his scripts he repeatedly appealed to conciliation between Christians and Jews. He is translator of Vulgata and other important scripts. His doctrine of justification was rejected in 1566. He was interested in astronomy and mathematics. On the other hand, his contemporaries often mentioned his abrasive behaviour.

Keywords: reformation; mystical conception of faith; Andreas Osiander

GOGOVÁ, Stanislava
Archeológia v systéme muzeologických disciplín
(Archaeology in the System of Museological Disciplines)
pp. 178–186

The archaeological sources are the only and hence key witnesses of the prehistoric period. This exclusivity puts them in a different light in comparison to the sources available for the following periods, where e.g. written sources are available. Most of the museums have the funds of items obtained by archaeological research. Archaeology as a discipline of special museology, like any other discipline presented in the museums, has its specifics. These are reflected, in particular, in the methods of work, in the form of records and documents, care, but also in the possibilities of field research and, ultimately, in the form of their presentation to the public. Their common feature is the protection of our cultural heritage and its legacy for future generations.

Keywords: archaeology; museology; museums; presentation

Rumunský 2. tankový pluk v prvej fáze Bratislavsko-brnianskej operácie
(Romanian 2nd Tank Regiment in the First Phase of Bratislava-Brno Operation)
pp. 187–202

Article focuses on short history of Romanian 2nd tank regiment, commanded by colonel S. Zatreanu which took part at the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian front's offensive in late March 1945. This became later known as Bratislava – Brno operation. Operation's aim was to break the defensive line of German tank corps Feldherrnhalle on the lower Hron. Consequently Soviet forces were to continue assault towards Bratislava and Malé Karpaty mountains. The main task of the operation was to act as a basic part of Soviet 27th Guards tank brigade, which had lost all of its tanks in February battles at the Hron bridgehead.

Keywords: Romanian tank regiment; Bratislava-Brno operation; tank corps Feldherrnhalle; 2nd Ukrainian front


Problematika výučby pravekých dejín
(The Questions of Teaching Prehistory Period)
pp. 203–206

Prehistory period is an integral part of human history. In comparison to other historical periods it has many specifics and these should be stressesed in history teaching process. Following article draws attention to three phenomena that require a specific approach in school praxis: a specific database of sources, unstable chronological framework and the absence of heroes and narratives.

Keywords: prehistory; history in school praxis; history didactics

KIČKOVÁ, Adriana
Ženy v učebniciach dejepisu
(Women in History Textbooks)
pp. 207–211

For long time women were hidden in curriculum of history subject that focused mainly on the public domain. Undoubtedly women have played an important role in history. This article examines women’s history and a narrative in history textbooks currently used in the Slovak Republic and introduces some examples from other countries.

Keywords: women; education; history textbooks

Možnosti rozvíjania kritického zmýšľania študentov prostredníctvom vyučovania dejepisu
(Possibilities of Developing Critical Thinking Skills of Students through History Education)
pp. 212–219

The article discusses the meaning of history classes in primary and secondary schools and the possibilities of turning history classes into means of developing critical thinking skills among the students. Three main problems of present-day history education are identified in the article: focusing on historical narratives, emphasizing of conflicts in past and creating the image of the glorious past of one’s own nation, which leads to the spreading of stereotypes about the self and the other. The author proposes the idea that history education could be improved by stimulating the students to work individually with the sources, by introducing lessons on historiography and history of ideas into primary and secondary education, and by developing discussions on current social problems and their historical roots within history classes themselves.

Keywords: history education; history textbooks; critical thinking

PALÁRIK, Miroslav
Aplikácia regionálnych dejín do školskej praxe prostredníctvom realizácie projektu Mesto pod mestom
(Application of Regional History into School Praxis through the Project City beneath the City)
pp. 220–227

Following article focuses on the main outcomes and objectives of the project City beneath the City. During two years the research team prepared various activities as integral part of the project, e.g. interactive exhibition in regional museum, historic game in the city centre, textbooks and presentation on CD-ROM as handout for teachers and students dealing with the history of Nitra region. The project transferred information about history of town Nitra for target group – students at lower and upper secondary schools in Nitra region and may be understood as an example of good practice as far as teaching of regional history is concerned.

Keywords: regional history; project City beneath the City; non-formal education

HUDÁK, Peter
Aplikácia poznatkov o lokálnej podobe holokaustu vo výchovno-vzdelávacom procese
(The Application of Knowledge about Local Form of the Holocaust in the Teaching Process)
pp. 228–236

Holocaust education in Slovakia stands upon advances in research and has significantly changed over the last decade. This article seeks to reflect a continuing process of pedagogical development and improvement as well as deals with different ways of teaching the Holocaust at primary and secondary school level. The first part focuses on the current state and problems which are related with Holocaust education in Slovakia. Second part discusses the importance of regional history in the teaching process, the particularities of Holocaust education and the teaching guidelines or advices. The final section is devoted to application of knowledge of historical research about the tragedy of particular Jewish community into the educational process. It includes the proposal of exhibition and methodological sheets as an example "How to Teach the Holocaust in local schools".

Keywords: the Holocaust; teaching process; the regional history

ŽUPČÁN, Ladislav
Perspektívy začlenenia historickej architektúry do vyučovacieho procesu
(Perspectives of Integration of Historical Architecture into the Process of History Teaching)
pp. 237–245

Historical architecture represents a significant component of the cultural heritage. Especially fortified architecture is a subject of interest of non-governmental organizations in recent years, it is topic of various publications, as well as area for organizing various events. It is also repeatedly presented in form of miniatures and models. The article analyses the current status and opportunities of incorporating selected aspects of the history of historical architecture into teaching process. Described are the examples of good practice from various countries as France, Germany and Hungary.

Keywords: virtuality; historical architecture; presentation fortifications; regional history

Nové možnosti prezentácie regionálnych dejín v priestoroch múzeí
(New Presentation Possibilities of Regional History in Museums)
pp. 246–252

Regional history plays important role in Slovak historiography. The efforts to popularise the scientific results and to present the findings to public may be understood as further level. Nowadays possibilities to present history and cultural heritage are wide. Furthermore, modern technical options enable to create visual picture of reconstructed items. The reconstructions may contribute to the understanding of regional history in wider contexts. Following article briefly analyses current state of the presentation of regional history in institutions, particularly in the Slovak museums. Focus is given on the possibilities of the usage of virtual spaces.

Key words: regional history, virtual product, museum

Recenzie a anotácie/Review and Annotations/Kritik und glossen

KAČÍREK, Ľuboš – RAGAČ, Radoslav – TIŠLIAR, Pavol. Múzeum a historické vedy. (Miroslav Glejtek), pp. 253–254

ČAJKA, František. Církevněslovanská legenda o svaté Anastázii. (Martina Chromá), pp. 254–256

KOVAŘÍK, Jiří. Ludvík XIV. Život, doba a války krále Slunce. (Ľudovít Marci), pp. 257–258

LE GOFF, Jacques. Svatý Ludvík. (Ľudovít Marci), pp. 258–259

SLOBODNÍK, Martin. Politické, náboženské a ekonomické aspekty čínsko-tibetských vzťahov v 14. – 15. storočí. (Beáta Pintérová), pp. 259–260

MICHLOVÁ, Marie. Protentokrát aneb česká každodennost 1939–1945. (Nina Sozanská), pp. 260–261

ŠIDLÍKOVÁ, Zuzana. Móda na Slovensku v medzivojnovom období (1918–1939). (Nina Sozanská), pp. 261–262

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 263–268

Veröffentlicht am