Studia Historica Nitriensia 19 (2015), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 19 (2015), 1
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

Kulturní krajina na starých vyobrazeních
(Cultural Landscape in Old Depictions)
pp. 3–19

Designed landscapes in all time periods were more or less a clear demonstration of status, power and entitlement: in their relationship to the audience as well as the landscape itself. In this elementary framework, a medieval castle is a good analogy, visually commanding a landscape and embodying the political and military potential, or a baroque castle complex with extensive gardens, expressing the social status of its owner and his place in the contemporary hierarchy. The design of the landscape – adaptation of natural elements and (primarily) its cultivation and combination with architecture – can be generally regarded as a status symbol. It is evident that the interplay of the ideal and reality affected also contemporary vedute (views / prospects) of towns, manor houses with designed micro-worlds of manorial gardens, as well as cultural landscapes. Depictions of individual types of environments, landscape frameworks and landscape compositions were based on general idealized models of environments, into which painters and engravers inserted real panoramata of towns and villages as well as other structures (such as castles and chateaux, manor houses and whatever else might interest the public), and did so with greater or lesser degree of adaptation or, if we prefer, invention. This study presents fundamental characteristics of the given genre on selected examples from Bohemia around the year 1700 (pictorial maps, manuscript and printed prospects of cultural landscape with architecure).

Keywords: historical landscape; prospect of landscape; old maps; vedute; nobility

CHRASTINA, Peter – RÁCOVÁ, Katarína
Mosty na území Nitrianskej stolice v prvej polovici 18. storočia podľa Notícií Mateja Bela (historicko-geografický prístup)
(Bridges in the Nitra County in the first half of the 18th Century due to the Notitia by Matthias Bel (historical-geographic approach))
pp. 20–36

Matthias Bel in his work Notitia Hungariae Novae historico-geographica offered a contemporary view of the specific studies of Hungarian counties within the Habsburg monarchy. The aim of the study is the historical-geographic analysis and interpretation of particular parts of his work in which M. Bel briefly described the bridges across specific watercourses. Historical and geographical "exploration" into Bel´s characteristics of bridging of the rivers Váh, Nitra and Dudváh were carried out through a critical commentary of the translation of the original text using scientific literature, old maps, image sources, and results of field research as well as our own knowledge of these issues. The information about bridges which were mentioned by M. Bel only partially correspond with today's knowledge. Bel´s characteristics of the most important bridges above watercourses provide contemporary image of that category of road constructions in the Nitra County in the first half of the 18th century.

Keywords: Matthias Bel; Notitia; Nitra County; watercourses; bridges; historical geography

GURŇÁK, Daniel
Náčrt historicko-geografickej analýzy územného vývoja mesta (na príklade Popradu a Nového Mesta nad Váhom)
(Outline of Historical-Geographical Analysis of Territorial Development of a Town (example: Nové Mesto nad Váhom and Poprad))
pp. 37–52

The focus of this paper is concentrated on the problem of research of historical-geographical spatial development of towns in Slovakia. Methodology of cartographic processing is presented on the example of analysis of the development of two towns: Nové Mesto nad Váhom and Poprad. This paper deals with spatial development of these two towns in comparable timeframes and it identifies areas with diverse functional land use and depicts these areas on a series of specific mapping outputs. Another area of interest of this work is the analysis of forming of most stable and non-stable areas of the towns based on information on changes in its functional land use. This paper wants to introduce a geographical point of view on the issues of research of historical-geographical development of towns in Slovakia.

Keywords: historical geography; spatial development of a town; Nové Mesto nad Váhom; Poprad

Územný vývoj a topografia obce Červeník od konca 19. do 2. pol. 20. storočia
(Territorial Development and Topography of the Village Červeník from late 19th to second half of the 20th century)
pp. 53–77

The article deals with the topography and spatial development of the village Červeník since the late 19th century to the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. It focuses mainly on developments and changes that have occurred in the village until the year 1960 in terms of area, the construction boom and other related aspects. Particular attention is paid to changes of the cadastral boundaries, especially in relation to the neighboring village Leopoldov, which has mainly in the 20th century expanded at the expense of Červeník. The study is supplemented by a sample of the original cadastral maps and clearly marked map of the municipality area in 1894.

Keywords: Červeník; Leopoldov; territorial development; historical geography

Majetky opátstva v dnešnom Hronskom Beňadiku v rokoch 1075 a 1209
(Estates of the Abbey of present-day Hronský Beňadik in 1075 and 1209)
pp. 78–85

A monastery in present-day Hronský Beňadik was one of wealthy ecclesiastical institutions in the medieval Hungarian Kingdom. Hungarian King Géza I (1074 – 1077) was the founder of the monastery. The paper is focused on the abbey estates which are recorded in the founding charter dated 1075 and the charter of Pope Innocent III (1198 – 1216) dated 1209. Both charters mention 25 settlements and "terra Sugolgi" with the St. Martin's Chapel in Dvory nad Žitavou. Some estates are recorded only in one of the charters.

Keywords: Hronský Beňadik; abbey; properties; 1075; 1209

Vnímanie krajiny poddanými v čase tereziánskej urbárskej regulácie
(Perception of the Landscape by Serfs in the Conscriptions from the Period of Maria Terezia)
pp. 86–93

We know relatively little about the perception of contemporary historical landscape by serfs. From the 18th century we have the conscriptions from the age of Maria Terezia where is, inter alia, information about local historical landscape. Data for the conscriptions were reported by the serfs (reeves and jurats), so we can see in it their perception of the landscape, too. Author in this paper analyses information about different landscape components, for example selected settlements of the Zvolen County. From the perspective of historic-geographical research, data of historical land use (area of arable land, meadows, pasture lands, vineyards), availability of firewood and building wood or quality of roads have special notice value. Mentions of local mills, pubs or mine and metallurgical industry are interesting for historical topography. Information about damages caused by torrential rain, floods or severe winter and a lot of snow is worth as well. Stated information can be founded mainly in the 4th point of questionnaires made for Teresian register needs.

Keywords: historical geography; landscape; serfs; conscriptions from the age of Maria Terezia

Možnosti současné fotografie v procesu zážitkové pedagogiky pro dospělé
(Possibilities of Contemporary Photography in the Process of the Experiential Education of Adults)
pp. 94–98

Author focused on the possibilities of photography and its specific language in the process of education with emphasis on education of adults. Text describes the pilot project in Olomouc Museum of Art. This project was aimed towards an experiential education using the activation method. The text is linked to generalization of possibilities of photography in educational process.

Keywords: photography; pedagogy; museum

HNOJSKÁ, Vendula
Depozitář jako 3. prohlídkový okruh
(Depository as the Third Guided Tour)
pp. 99–104

Started September 28, 2011 the third guided tour at the castle settlement in Blovice is the depository, containing initially textiles, porcelain, ceramics and glass items. The depository will be open especially for professionals. It will serve also for students who will be working with ethnographic material for their Bachelor's, Master's and doctoral theses. We will enable researchers to address not only the historical documentary and visual material, but also direct three-dimensional objects that are only limited exhibited, e.g. household textiles, clothing, household utility, etc. This project enriches not only individual researchers but also the general public interested in history, especially in the region South Pilsen.

Keywords: museum Blovice; open depository; collection´s accessing; guided tour

Výuka dějin umění versus vzdělávací potenciál muzeí a galerií
(Teaching Art History versus the Educational Potential of Museums and Galleries)
pp. 105–110

Author is mentioning some remarks about teaching of art history at secondary high schools and elementary schools. There is a question whether the results of contemporary history research and research in the theory of art history are, or are not, reflected in the field of education of art history at schools. To take a stand on present interpretation of art history author focused on the theory of history at first. Historians are talking about the end of great storytelling, art historians about the end of art history. The text highlights the importance of integration of the education of art history into elementary schools.

Keywords: art history; museum; gallery; educational system

ŠOBÁŇ, Marek
Animací to nekončí – neorganizovaní návštěvníci v prostředí muzea a galerie
(Animation is not the End – Unorganized Visitors in the Enviroment of Museums and Galleries)
pp. 111–117

The paper focuses on the ways of the education which are carried out without the active presence of the museum´s lector.It´s about the education of unorganized groups of children visitors, with the help of variable materials, didactical instruments, e.g. the self-servised work lists, the interactive educational aids, or the short educational films. The article ilustrates the topic on the examples of mediation of the permanent and also the short term expositions of the Olomouc Museum of Art in the year 2011.

Keywords: museum; gallery; unorganized visitors


ZUBKO, Peter
Duchovná útecha na popravisku v novoveku
(The Religious Consolation on the Place of Execution in the Modern Age)
pp. 118–132

The death penalty is a part of human history. In describing of executions find priests or monks, in images of executions seen priests with various religious gestures. In Europe in the Middle Ages was developed a custom to provide sentenced to death spiritual consolation. In the middle ages and in modern times the ceremony was the some, but until the 17th century we have retained the full text of spiritual consolation of the condemned men to death by Capuchin Martin von Kochem. In the 19th century the text of the ritual was translated into Slovak. This article presents a Catholic doctrine of the death penalty, justification for the presence of the priests on the scaffold, the most famous historical reports of the presence of the priests on the scaffold and the whole ceremony spiritual consolation of the condemned men, as was used in old Hungary and Europe in the 17th – 20th centuries. The oldest known ritual has German origin and Hungarian and Slovak version prepared a military priest Francis Tannenberg. It is not certain that the ritual was always and everywhere used whole, present priests sometimes adapted it to the situation, but often managed to recover a few moments necessary to spiritually prepare inmates to death and meeting with God.

Keywords: the death penalty; Martin von Cochem; Catholic rituals


NIKLOVÁ, Michaela
Nový výskumný trend – archeológia domácnosti
(A New Research Trend – the Household Archaeology)
pp. 133–155

The archaeology of households is a relatively new research trend which has existed for nearly three decades. It was created in the United States and the Great Britain but nowadays, researchers are concerned with this issue in continental Europe as well. Despite it, these new approaches in the investigation of settlements and households have been rarely used in Slovakia yet. Because of this, my aim is to come up with some basic information about the household archeology as a new trend and try to apply it into the archaeological investigation in Slovakia.

Keywords: house; household; family; the household archaeology

Výstava Inkovia – deti Slnka
(The Incas – Children of the Sun)
pp. 156–168

This paper deals with exhibition prepared by students of Museology at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra, Slovakia named The Incas – Children of the Sun. As far as methodology is concerned, we presented the information through mind mapping. This allowed to express the historical facts visually and verbally, to actively create history, stories, to instigate active thinking, it also developed communication skills and allowed the visitors to work in groups.

Key words: the Incas; mind mapping; student exhibition

Recenzie /Review /Kritik

LONDÁK, Miroslav – MICHÁLEK, Slavomír a kol.: 20 rokov samostatnej Slovenskej republiky. Jedinečnosť a diskontinuita historického vývoja (Martin Furmanik), pp. 169–176

FERREIRA, Jorge – CASTRO GOMES, Angela de. 1964. (Aleš Vrbata), pp. 176–178

RÉFI, Attila (ed.). A császári-királyi huszárság törzstiszti kara a francia forradalmi és a napóleoni háborúk korában (1792–1815). (Silvia Némethová), pp. 178–180

FERENCOVÁ, Michaela – NOSKOVÁ, Jana (eds.). Paměť města : Obraz města, veřejné komemorace a historické zlomy v 19.-21. století. (Peter Chrastina), pp. 180–182

Anotácie / Annotations/ Glossen

BOCK, Michel. A Nation Beyond Borders. Lionel Groulx on French-Canadian Minorities. (Aleš Vrbata), pp. 183–184

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 185–188

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