Studia Historica Nitriensia 20 (2016), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 20 (2016), 1
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav




Charakteristika “barbarských” statů (příspěvek k metodologii dějin)
(Characteristics of „Barbarian“ Germanic States (Contribution to the methodology of history))
pp. 3–16

Ancient state can be characterized as a religious, political and legal unit, regardless of whether it is a state of the so-called Ancient Oriental type or the ancient states of Greeks and Romans. The barbarian Germanic states do not necessarily form a religious and legal unity. In this paper we would want to describe the so called barbarian state like a type. We discuss here its mostly polyethnical structure, the kingship and its supports (support in sacrality, in retinue, war, relations with the Roman Empire, in legislation, tradition, genealogy of the king families, ceremony of investiture and in the church). Then we discuss the bearers of statehood of this states and their specific legal situations. The barbarian Germanic states are compared with the so called empire of Attila. Attila’s “empire” can be considered a “barbarian state“ with certain features of the sacred kingship and absolute might of the so-called Ancient Oriental type.

Keywords: The so called Barbarian state as a type; the kingship in the “Barbarian” Germanic kin- gdoms and its supports; the bearers of the statehood of these kingdoms; the comparison of these states to the Empire of Attila;

Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

JIRKAL, Emanuel
Tragická postava prvého izraelského kráľa Šaula
(The tragic Figure of the First King of Israel, Saul)
pp. 17–29

The contribution focuses on the early period of the first state of Israel at the end of the 10th century BC. It is based on literary and archaeological sources. Biblical text is extremely complex, multi¬ layered and complicated. Therefore it should be considered extremely carefully. Saul was an important figure in the early history of Israel, which was able to create the first structure of the early state, but he could not resist multiple threats, whether from external enemies, especially the Philistines, or internal, e.g. David. Saul died on the battlefield and his dynasty ended after a few years.

Keywords: King Saul; Israel; Old Testament;

HABAJ, Michal
Zásahy Kambýsa II. do fungovania hospodárstva Perzskej ríše
(Interventions of Cambyses II into the Economy of the Persian Empire)
pp. 30–39

Cambyses II is known for his Egyptian campaign. Following article deals with the previous period and his possible economical reforms. Based upon Babylonian administrative tablets, the study shows the militarization of Babylonian economy in the frame of his military preparation. The main target of his policy influenced the prices as well and the author suggests that there were important Babylonian financial involvements into Cambysesʼ campaign, what kept the inflation growing.

Keywords: Achaemenid Persia; Cambyses II.; Babylonian economy; Near Eastern Economy;

BABIC, Marek
Vidiecke vily v listoch rímskych aristokratov
(Rural Villas in the Letters of Roman Aristocrats)
pp. 40–46

The article deals with literary descriptions of particular rural Roman villas in the letters of Seneca, Plinius Secundus, and Sidonius Apollinaris. The special attention is devoted to the relationship between descriptions of the villas in the letters, and the real material evidence searched by archaeologists. In the article are examined main aesthetic and sociological concerns, that Roman aristocrats associated to their luxury country estates. Analysed are also some terminological, chronological, and geographical specifications of the Roman country houses as presented in the correspondence of the Roman aristocrats.

Keywords: Roman villa; ancient architecture; Seneca; Plinius Secundus; Sidonius Apollinaris;

Mýtus nebo realita? Ekologická krize v antice ve světle písemných pramenů
(Myth or Reality? Ancient Ecological Crisis in Written Sources)
pp. 47–63

The study deals with the main environmental problems of classical Greek and Roman civilization (soil degradation, deforestation, urban pollution) and their impact upon development of ancient societies. The relation between country and city from the point of view of economic and social development and migration between the city and country are also discussed as the key factor influencing the changes of environment and landscape in the ancient states and empires.

Keywords: landscape; deforestation; soil degradation; migration; nature conservation; Classical Antiquity; environmental history;

GÁLIK, Zdenko
Mikuláš Ujlaki (Ilocký) a jeho hradné panstvá na území dnešného Slovenska – Korlátka, Hlohovec, Tematín
(Mikuláš Ujlaki and his Castle Properties in the Area of Present Slovakia – Korlátko, Hlohovec and Tematín)
pp. 64–90

The study deals with Mikuláš Ujlaki, a leading Hungarian nobleman who was in military and diplomatic services of Hungarian kings Zigmund of Luxembourg, Albert of Habsburg, Ladislaus V. the Posthumous and Matthias Corvinus, and his castle properties which are situated in the area of present Slovakia – Korlátko, Hlohovec and Tematín. The author focuses on the castle of Hlohovec and the town of Hlohovec. He also notices noblemen who were in Mikuláš Ujlaki´s services (e.g. Osvald of Bučany, Ladislav of Díč and numerous castellans at his castles).

Keywords: Mikuláš Ujlaki; castle and town of Hlohovec; castle of Tematín; castle of Korlátko; the House of Ujlaki;

Gnóma Nosce te ipsum v úvodnom slove politickej príručky Jána Webera z roku 1665
(The Gnomic Saying Nosce te ipsum in the Prologue to the Handbook on Political Thinking by Ján Weber from 1665)
pp. 91–97

The gnomic saying γνῶθι σεαυτόν and its use as a foundation for a good life are the basic principles on which Ján Weber, a renowned pharmacologist, doctor and mayor of Prešov, builds on in the prologue to the Lectio principium (1665), his Handbook on political thinking. The aim of the paper is to show to what extent, the author draws on the examples inherited from the Antiquity.

Keywords: knowledge of the self; Ján Weber; handbook on the political thinking; Baroque literature;

Latinité jako regresivní nacionalismus (Latinská Amerika a Québec)
(Latinité as a backward-looking nationalism (Latin America and Québec))
pp. 98–122

Latinité concept as it was conceived in the 19th-century southern Europe found very wide range of application in Europe and American overseas. Conservative elites of European origin resorted to such imagery matrix above all because it constituted an effective way how to justify various types of dictatorships. Latin America but also Québec and French communities in the USA resorted to the similar concepts as an effective answer to Anglo-protestant dominance in the northwestern hemisphere. Latinité was conceived as an universal and conservative politico-social concept of hierarchical, traditional and corporativist state venerating classical values of Latin nations. This vision had a particular religious and spiritual element, because it frequently referred to Catholic providentialism traditionally linked not just to conservative dictatorships but also to the overseas colonial expansionist projects. Latinité vision reached significant achievements in form of long- or short-lasting dictatorial regimes both in Europe and Latin America or in the project of French America restoration.

Keywords: Latinité; France; Maurras; Latin America; Québec; Catholicism;

ARPÁŠ, Róbert
Kríza československej myšlienky? (Slovenská mládež v politických stranách v prvej polovici 30. rokov minulého storočia)
(Crisis of Czechoslovak thought? (Slovak Youth in Political Parties in the First Half of 1930s´))
pp. 123–134

Economic crisis in the 1930s´ radicalised also the attitude of inhabitants of Czechoslovakia. Among the young Slovak generation this was manifested by reevaluation of their attitude to civil and legal status of Slovakia. This contribution is dedicated to three significant events in the years 1932 and 1933: The congress of the young Slovak generation in Trenčianske Teplice, the congress of young agrarian generation in Zvolen and Pribina´s festivities in Nitra. On this example is demonstrated the denial of the state¬ enforced ideology of Czechoslovakism by the whole young generation with no regards of party affiliation. Despite this consensus of opinions the representatives of the young generation still could not overcome the differences accruing from the party affiliation and agree on the common requirements which would lead to the solution of Slovak issue.

Keywords: Slovakia; reform; self¬ government; autonomy; young generation;

Nový sviatok v kalendári komunistického režimu: K formovaniu osláv československo-sovietskeho vzťahu na konci 40. rokov 20. storočia
(New Holiday in the Calendar of the Communist Regime: The Formation of the Czechoslovak Soviet Relationship Celebrations at the End of 1940s´)
pp. 135–160

The paper deals with the preparations for the celebration of the Czechoslovak¬ Soviet friendship. Highlighted is particular the year 1949, beginning of the tradition. Discussed are the initial ideas about the content and form of celebration. Analysed are changes in comparism to the initial idea and offered are interpretations of possible causes. Explained is the ideological background of the festivities and its official interpretation by governmental representatives. Article referred also to the main organiser of the event, the Union of Czechoslovak¬ Soviet Friendship, and analyses it in the context of the political situation.

Keywords: Days of Czechoslovak¬ Soviet Friendship; Union of Czechoslovak¬ Soviet Friendship; Celebrations; Festivities; National narrative; Ideology;


Život blahoslavenej pamiatky doktora Martina Luthera najhodnovernejšími historikmi zaznamenaný roku Pána 1791. V Banskej Bystrici : Ja. Jozef Tumler, 1791. 40 s.
(Life of Beatific Memory of Doctor Martin Luther Recorded by the Trustworthiest Historians Year of our Lord 1791. In Banská Bystrica: Ja. Jozef Tumler, 1791, 40pp)
pp. 161–177

Translated biography of Martin Luther was written in 1791 by anonymous author. In those time in Slovak or Bohemian language similar opus did not exist. Opus was markedly apologetical, but on the other side negated some legends, so it may be understood as valuable historical document. Moreover, it was dedicated for people, who didn´t understand any foreign languages. Author was closely acquainted with Luther´s curriculum vitae and what is interesting, likened him to Ján Hus. Opus was complemented by Luther´s predications.

Keywords: Martin Luther; Catholic Church; reformation; theological controversies;

Názvy ulíc a námestí v zajatí politiky. Zoznam slovenských dejateľov schválených na pomenovanie verejných priestranstiev v rokoch 1939 – 1945
(Names of Streets and Squares Seized by Politics. List of Slovak Personalities Approved for Naming of Public Spaces in the Period 1939 – 1945)
pp. 178–211

During the 20th century streets and squares on the Slovak territory were repeatedly renamed. Representatives of political regimes were aware the symbolical and ideological importance of public spaces. During WWII the political regime was openly seeking patterns in Nazi Germany. Ruling Hlinka´s Slovak Peoples Party was interested in the purifying of public spaces. Representatives of previous democratic regime of Czechoslovak republic and exponents of democratic ideas became unwanted. Preferred were different historical figures. The result was list of approved personalities whose names were allowed to use while renaming streets and squares.

Keywords: streets; Slovak republic 1939 – 1945; public spaces; World War II.;

Spolupráca múzeí so školami v období rokov 1970 – 1975 na stránkach výročných správ slovenských múzeí
(Cooperation between Museums and Schools during 1970 – 1975 Based on Annual Reports of Slovak Museums)
pp. 212–225

Following article is as a contribution to the history of Slovak museology during the first half of 1970s´. It is based on archival records, which were published as Annual Reports of Slovak Museums. It is focused on the cooperation of Slovak Museums with all types of schools in Slovakia between 1970 – 1975.

Keywords: museum; school; expositions; exhibitions; lectures; discussions; competitions; clubs; education; trips; collecting; 1970 – 1975;


Ľudový tanec v obciach východného Horehronia v kontexte historických a spoločenských zmien 19. a 20. storočia a jeho podoby v súčasnosti
(Folk Dance in Eastern Horehronie Region in the Context of Historical and Social Changes of the 19th and 20th Century and its Contemporary Forms)
pp. 226–242

Following article discusses historical development of folk dance in particular villages in Eastern Horehronie region (Šumiac, Telgárt, Vernár) in the context of historical and social changes of the 19th and the 20th century. At the turn of the centuries, in the interwar period and in the period after World War II, may be observed the most extensive changes affecting the folk dance. Described are the forms and the status of folk dance during the period and given are information about the changes, the shaping factors and the development of folk dance from these periods to the present.

Keywords: folk dance; Eastern Horehronie region; historical development;

PARÍKOVÁ, Magdaléna
Služobníctvo v retrospektíve historických a sociálnych kontextov 19. a 20. storočia z pohľadu etnológie
(Servants in Retrospect of Historic and Social Contexts of the 19th and 20th Century from the Ethnological Point of View)
pp. 243–251

Servants represented a stable social and professional structure of the urban and rural society. The article is focused at the servant institution in a context of factors that caused the persistence of this social phenomenon in Slovakia until the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. It also points at the creation and development of servants as a social reality in the condition of an obvious status and wealth difference among the society. According to the examples of the current times, the author points at the actuality, that labour for hire in social history presents an important part of the economic strategy in society.

Key words: servants; urban and rural environment; social and professional stratification;

Záhradkárske osady, chatári a chalupári ako fenomény urbanizácie
(Gardening Settlements and Cottage Owners as a Phenomenon of the Urbanization)
pp. 252–261

The importance of countryside as recreation area has risen according to the urbanization process which led to rising number of city population and worsening the quality of environment in the cities. In the countryside area there are many objects of individual recreation – cottages, recreation cottages, gardening houses. The primary goal of owning and making use of objects of individual recreation is the regeneration of physical and mental forces in a more suitable environment.

Keywords: urbanisation; cottages; gardening settlement; individual recreation;

Každodennosť vidieckej školy – na príklade lokality Liptovská Teplička v rokoch 1945 – 1956
(Everyday Life at Rural School on Example of Liptovská Teplička in the Period 1945 – 1956)
pp. 262–281

Following paper presents the ethnological aspects concerning the everyday life and functioning of rural schools on example of Liptovská Teplička (distr. Poprad). The school is perceived not only as an important institution providing educational functions, but also as a significant factor intervening in everyday life and culture of pupils, their families and the whole rural community. Author focuses on reflection of some selected moments from everyday school life during a post¬ war period in Czechoslovakia when the new socio¬ political system was established (1945 – 1956). The main sources of the article are local school chronicles, partly supplemented by qualitative data obtained through ethnological field research in this village.

Keywords: everyday life of school; rural environment; Liptovská Teplička; post­‑war period;


Prehľad využitia progresívnych metód v historickej antropológii v podmienkach Slovenska
(Overview of the Use of Progressive Methods in Historical Anthropology in Slovakia)
pp. 282–289

In archaeological context, anthropologists focus on determination of main characteristics of human population, for example age, sex and ethnic origin. Overall, historical skeletal remains preserved as complete intact skeleton is very rarely. Main factors which modify state of human bones in post¬ mortem interval are context and method of inhumation, environmental and ecological factors, biological aspects of an individual (age, dietary) and taphonomical changes affecting the organism after its death. Therefore, it is essential to approach to the evaluation of the historical skeletal material with available anatomic¬ microscopic methods, histological and molecularbiological methods.

Keywords: human skeletal remains; analysis; methods; historical anthropology; Slovakia;

Kultúra prekladu – reálie z antickej kultúry ako prekladateľský problém
(The Culture of Translation – Ancient Culture Realia as Translation Problem)
pp. 290–296

Language skills are not enough to understand a text correctly when translating. The Greeks and Romans left a legacy that is present in the languages of all cultural nations. To understand it properly and then interpret it, it is important to know a broader context. The term realia is Latin for „real things“ and in translation studies, is used to refer to concepts which are found in a given source culture but not in a given target culture. That‘s why the translators need and have to consult with an expert in Classical Philology.

Keywords: ancient civilization; translation of realia; transcription;

OZIMY, Andrej
Archeologická expozícia v Podunajskom múzeu v Komárne a návrh na jej reinštaláciu
(Archaeological Exposition of Danube Region Museum in Komárno and Project of its Reinstallation)
pp. 297–328

The primary aim of each museum is making of collections accessible for the general public. The Danube Region Museum in Komárno is one of the oldest on the territory of south¬ west Slovakia. One of the greatest problems is the lack of funds for the creation of new exhibitions. The archaeological exhibition of the museum was created and opened in 1970. This paper presents the present state of the exhibition and possible project of its reinstallation.

Keywords: Danube Region Museum in Komárno; archaeological exposition; reinstallation project;


HRUBOŇ, Anton. „Za slovenský štát, za Novú Európu!“ Hlinkova garda v období nemeckej okupácie. (Jakub Drábik), pp. 329–331

ŠEDIVÝ, Juraj et al. Latinská epigrafia. Dejiny a metodika výskumu historických nápisov zo Slovenska. (Dávid Jablonský), pp. 331–333

BEL, Matej: Liptovská stolica. Prel. KORDOŠ, J. (Peter Chrastina), pp. 333–336

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 337–341

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia/ Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal/ Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 342–346

Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 347–351

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