Studia Historica Nitriensia 20 (2016), 2

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 20 (2016), 2
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav




Niekoľko slov k výročiu (A few words to the jubilee)
pp. 355–357

Editorial is focused on the creation of the project “Studia historica Nitriensia”, remembers the beginnings and its development since 1993 till today. It shows variables regarding the content, periodicity and personal composition of the editorial board. On the background of its creation and transformation also it presents a brief history of workplace – about Department of History, Faculty of Arts at Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra.

Keywords: journal; Studia historica Nitriensia; jubilee; reflection; jubilee; reflection;

Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

MITÁŠ, Vladimír
Periodizačné a synchronizačné systémy pre štúdium doby popolnicových polí na Slovensku (Systems of Periodization and Synchronisation Used to Study the Urnfield Period in Slovakia)
pp. 358–378

The authors offer review of systems of periodization and synchronisation dealing with issues of the Urnfield Period in Slovakia. They refer to the general principles on which chronological and synchronisation models are based, but also on their creation and use. The elements of current periodization of the Bronze Age have being evolved in Europe since the late 19th and the early 20th centuries (O. A. Montelius, P. Reinecke), and these systems were further developed. Specifically, the authors deal with more than twenty systems of periodization and synchronisation, which are gradually discussed and then introduced schematically. These systems were developed by Slovak researchers (M. Novotná, V. Furmánek, S. Demeterová and others) during the 20th and the early 21st centuries. In modified form, these systems are being used to study the Urnfield Period up to the present day.

Keywords: Slovakia; urnfield period; chronology; periodization; synchronisation;

Iulianus a římští mučedníci, aneb jak i historicky absurdní legenda vzdoruje definitivnímu usvědčení z ahistoricity: tři historicko-filologické sondy (Julian and the Martyrs of Rome: Three Historical and Philological Probes into How Even a Historically Absurd Legend May Resist Being Finally Proven Ahistorical)
pp. 379–405

The paper deals with the question of historicity of the legend of the Roman saints Gallicanus, John and Paul, which is still often presented as genuine history to the Czech reader. Henceforth, three facets of the legend are examined using philological and historical tools. Historicity of the characters featured in the legend, as well as the mutual relations among the historical ones, as portrayed by the legend, is examined, and confronted with historical fact on their actual relations. Gallicanus’ alleged battle against the Scythians at Philippopolis is checked as whether it is identifiable to any event recorded in other sources. And lastly, the question of Julian’s sojourn to Rome, which seems necessary within the plot of the legend, is tested for being ruled out for the entire time of his reign. Thus the classical method for examining the historicity of a legend is presented, while at the same time demonstrating the limitations it necessarily suffers even when as historically absurd a legend is examined. Yet, based only on these limitations, the legend cannot be presented as history.

Keywords: Historicty of a legend; fictious martyrs; Saint Gallicanus; Saints John and Paul; Rome in the 4th century ad; Julian the Apostate;

FONT, Márta
Between East and West. Translation as a Means of Cross-Cultural Communication. Examples from Central and Eastern Europe in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Period (Medzi Západom a Východom. Preklad ako prostriedok medzikultúrnej komunikácie. Príklady zo Strednej a Východnej Európy v stredoveku a ranom novoveku)
pp. 406–419

Literacy in medieval Christian Europe was characterised by Latin-Greek linguistic and cultural differences. Everywhere the vulgar tongue differed from the written language. In the territories where neo-Latin languages were spoken, elements from the vulgar Latin also appeared in written texts with increasing frequency. In Central Europe local variants of Latin formed, but was infiltrated by elements of the spoken language. We encounter few linguistic relics written in the vulgar tongue, but only a part of these are translations. From the beginning we find translation literature in the regions of the Orthodox Christian world, where the early practice of triglossia was superseded by the raising of Slavic into liturgical use. This was followed by translation of Greek liturgical texts and later of chronicles. In Central Europe the language of science remained Latin for many centuries. From the sixteenth century translation can also be observed on the borders of Latin and Orthodox Christianity.

Keywords: Translation; Central and Eastern Europe; Middle Ages; Early Modern Time;

Cestná sieť a mýtne stanice na Požitaví v období stredoveku (The road network and toll stations in the Žitava region during the Middle Ages)
pp. 420–431

Roads have been the distinctive orientation lines of the landscape which they have crossed. Important roads have made a substantial contribution to the region. In the article I focus my attention on the reconstruction of the roadnetwork on the basis of archaeological and literary sources in the territory of the Žitava region during the Middle Ages. The Žitava region was sparsely inhabited in the 6th-8th centuries. Pathways of this period should be mainly assumed in the Lower Žitava region. The number of archaeological sites grew in the 9th-10th centuries. In this period the developed road network also existed in the Upper Žitava region. The 11th century literary sources give evidence on main roads which run alongside the River Žitava. Important road nodes were Dvory nad Žitavou, Vráble, and Zlaté Moravce. Jelenec (Gýmeš) and Hrušov Castles played an significant role in the road network as well. Literary sources prove that there was the connection between the studied territory and the Nitra and Hron regions. The well-known Czech road runs through the Lower Žitava region. The primary literary sources, which are mainly dated to the 14th and15th centuries, provide evidence on the dense network of toll stations in the Žitava region during the Late Middle Ages.

Keywords: Žitava; road network; settlement;

POLÁKOVÁ, Miroslava
Židé v Uherském Brodě a konečné řešení židovské otázky v období Protektorátu na moravsko-slovenském pomezí (Jews in Uherský Brod and final solution Solution of the Jewish question during the protectorate on the Moravian-Slovak border)
pp. 432–458

In Uherský Brod, whose district boundary was several tens of kilometers, together with Slovakia, lived at the beginning of the Protectorate of about 600 Jews. Although about 50 people, who managed to emigrate legally, even so he remained the majority continue to live in the Jewish part of the city, which in year 1942 became a forcible refuge for forced nearly 3 thousand people benefiting Jewish faith in southeast Moravia. Some local Jews began from the spring of 1939 to work with the active resistance movement components, as with the Defense of the nation at converting across the Slovak border, as well as with the illegal Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, which they provide finanial menans. Anti-Semitism while steadily louder and living conditions in still worse. He was destroyed Jewish cemetery, and so was lit synagogue from the 18th century. In January 1943, pursuant to a subpoena 2,837 Jews arrived with 50 kg of luggage into the building of the local grammar school. From there the journey went in three groups after about 1,000 people on 23, 27 and 31. 1. 1943 by stairs to the nearby train station and then through Terezin to Auschwitz.

Keywords: Jews; racial discrimination; resistence; anti-semitism; transpot; genocide;

Psycho-history: Historical Re-membering as Archetypal Imagining (Psychohistorie: Historické pamatování jako archetypální obraznost)
pp. 459–480

Even though ancient history was aware of profound link between history and psychology or history and arts, this link, so much apparent in the imagery around Titaness Mnemosyne and her daughters, nine Muses, western modernity substituted myth imagery by the rationality of logos. In addition, this change was accompanied by an attempt to eliminate “soul” and myth from the western thought as unscientific. Initiative of an interdisciplinary connection of history and psychology came from psychologists who started call attention to imagery and collective myths not only for individuals but also for human society. Thus certain segment of historiography started to assume – since 1950s but with increased reception since 1970s and 1980s – depth-historical perspective and validate role of inconscious and irrationality not only in the events of the past and human behaviour and also in historiographical works. This paper introduces three key exemplification of such a tendency: Erich Neumann, Wolfgang Giegerich and the school of cultural complex. Their work is connected with Jung´s thesis of the epistemological primacy of psyche, but also with pioneering projects connecting psychological and historical processes in the history (Freud, Toynbee, Erickson).

Keywords: psyche; depth psychology; rememberign; mythological unconscious; history; imagery;

Pamäťová inštitúcia múzea ako prostriedok formovania vzťahu ku kultúrnemu dedičstvu (Memory institution – museum as a Means forming relationships to cultural heritage)
pp. 483–490

Cultural heritage is one aspect of the identity of each ethnic group. Ethnic and cultural identity is now a priority in the educational process and in the school environment as well as in informal education. In this regard, as the law may have memory institutions, museums, irreplaceable role in the shaping of individuals and companies related to their cultural values. Action against the museum for formal education in the school environment is characterized by voluntary, nonviolence, not an effort to learn, but to motivate, attract.

Keywords: cultural heritage; identity; memory institutions; museums; educational process;


Privilégiá pre oppidum Hronský Beňadik z rokov 1680 a 1714 (The Privilege Charters for the Town of Hronský Beňadik of the Years 1680 and 1714)
pp. 491–504

The privilege charters for the town of Hronský Beňadik from 1680 and 1714 are the ground base for the legal status of this sort of settlement. The first one contains the right to organize the four free markets in the town of Hronský Beňadik from the year 1680, which was issued by the German Emperor and the Hungarian King Leopold the First of Habsburg. The second confirms the diplomatic falsum of the year 1217 and was issued by the King Charles the Third.

Keywords: privilege; diplomatic falsum; free market; self govering town; financial duties;

POBOCHA, Patrycja
The Cemetery of Tarnobrzeg Lusatian Culture in Korytnica 5/3, in the Southeast of Poland (Tarnobrzegská skupina lužickej kultúry na pohrebisku Korytnica 5/3 v juhovýchodnom Poľsku)
pp. 505–526

This thesis is an analysis of source materials related to the Tarnobrzeg Lusatian Culture found in the cemetery in Korytnica 5/3 within the municipality of Sobków, in the county of Jędrzejów, in the świętokrzyskie in southeast Poland. This study has been carried out on the artefacts discovered in 2008 and 2009 as well as during the salvage excavation in 2010.

Keywords: archeology; Southest Poland; Tarnobrzeg Lusatian Culture Hallstatt D;


Paulus Hector Mair (cca 1517–1579) (The person Paulus Hector Mair (cca 1517–1579))
pp. 527–532

The article is about life of the person and author or editor of the fencing manual: Manusript Opus Amplissimum de Arte Athlethica Paulus Hector Mair. He is most interesting person of authors, compilators and editioners of fencing manuals – manuscripts in 16th century of Europe and of The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (Sacrum Romanum Imperium Nationis Germanicae / Das Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation). The aim of the article is to present and describe the life of personality Paulus Hector Mair, latest compiler, author or editor of fencing manuals – Fechtbücher of the 16th century.

Keywords: Paulus Hector Mair; his live; his fencing manual (fechtbuch);

CHMELO, Ladislav
Prehľad vývoja názorov na možnosti identifikácie sociálnej diferenciácie a stratifikácie v archeológii so zameraním na obdobie mladšieho praveku (Overview of the development of opinions on possibilities of identification of social differentiation and stratification in archaeology with focus in late prehistory)
pp. 533–546

Research and reconstruction of social organization of prehistoric communities has belonged to actual and persistent topics in archaeology and related scientific disciplines – ethnology and social anthropology, since the beginning of scientific research. This contribution summarizes development of opinions and paradigms connected to identification and interpretation of social differentiation and stratification in archaeology. It also evaluates possibilities of finding those structures.

Keywords: social differentiation; social stratification; reconstruction of social organization; prehistory; archeological paradigms;

Niekoľko poznámok ku kultúrno-výchovnej činnosti slovenských múzeí v prvej polovici 70-tych rokov 20. storočia (A few notes to the cultural and educational activities of Slovak museums in the first half of the 70s of the 20th century)
pp. 547–555

The feature deals with the basic aspects of cultural-educational activities of the Slovak National Museum during the first half of the Seventios. We structured it as remarks to these activities and we focused on exhibition activities, external activities and cooperation of museums and schools. In spite of political pressure, apolitical contents were stressed in cultural-educational activities.

Keywords: museum; cultural-educational activities; exhibitions; lectures; lectures; debates;


Neformálne formálne o vzdelávaní v múzeu a galérii (Informal formal about education in museums and galleries)
pp. 556–561

The article focuses on the impact of formal education for the creation of educational activities and programs in galleries and museums. The new public education program wished to draw attention more to the field of arts and culture, thus creating space for visiting galleries, museums or other cultural institutions. Linking formal and informal education opens wider and more creative space for gathering and validation of new information.

Keywords: non-formal education; formal education; gallery; museums; art education;


RUMAN, Ladislav
Vznik, budovanie a charakter Červenej armády /1917–1945/ (fakty, udalosti, predstavitelia a dokumenty). (Denis Svetlák)
pp. 561–563

pp. 564–574

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal/Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia
pp. 575–589

Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren
pp. 580–584

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