Studia Historica Nitriensia 21 (2017), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Palárik, Miroslav



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

Niekoľko úvah o vzdelaní v prostredí Spišskej kapituly v stredoveku (Some Reflections on Education in the Spiš Chapter during Middle Ages)
pp. 5–16
History of the education is not frequented topic in the Slovak historiography. On prosopography of the the medieval chapters, we can say the same words. On example of the Spiš Chapter, article shows research possibilities of the intersection of the both themes. Chapter as a place of education is analysed in the first part of the article. Because of lacking straight mentions in original sources on it, our conclusions stay on secondary evidences. Canons as learned persons are aim of the second part of the paper. Many questions are connect with this point of view: canons as educational elite of the medieval society, possibilities of higher education (studium generale), position in chapter (dignity or office) as a determination of the further education, etc. Following research should bring thorough prosopography of the medieval Spiš Chapter. It will be the solid basis for strong analysis of the educated elites of the medieval Hungarian kingdom.

Keywords: Education; Canons; Clergy; Medieval Chapter; Universities;

Books and Their Creators from the Medieval Kingdom of Hungary at the University of Prague (Knihy a ich autori zo stredovekého Uhorského kráľovstva na univerzite v Prahe)
pp. 17–31
In the focus of the interests of the Hungarian students at the University of Prague were not the philosophical texts, in spite of the fact that most of them studied at the Faculty of Arts. From the examined texts we could draw the conclusion that the Hungarian students had strong theological interests, since more than the half of the remained and known manuscripts/copies belonged to this discipline. Presumably – despite of the lack of sources – there were Hungarian theology students in the Czech capital. Another observation is that through these texts the Hussite theories couldn’t find its way to Hungary. Only one fragments might have connected to the Hussitism, the so-called “Hussite Bible”, but this is one of the most problematic writing from the point of view of its birthplace and time, and mostly of its translators. The theological manuscripts usually were copied in order to help the priests to guide the believers in their everyday life and to help them in other church matters. The legal texts of Lawrence Zámbó also points to this way of use. It is worth to note at the same time, that the Prague-related writings, like the legal texts of Provost Lawrence and the Processus iudiciarius played important role at the ecclesiastical judicial seats in the archdiocese of Esztergom. Possibly, Provost John of Veszprém (1367-1382) also learned law at Prague in the 1360s, but this is only an assumption. The two most important codices related to Nicholas Feystrip and to the “Reverend Buda”. The analysis of Feystrip’s codex revealed the cultural roots (at least from one direction) of the library of the Fraternity of 24 Spiš’ parish priests. While the manuscript of Reverend Buda could be linked to the founder of the Collegium Christi, or this manuscript belongs to a Hungarian student who is not know yet.

Keywords: Books; Middle ages; Kingdom of Hungary;

HUNČAGA, Gabriel
Dominikánske školy ako predchodkyne univerzít na zaalpskom území Sacrum Imperium Romanum vo vrcholnom a neskorom stredoveku? (Dominican Schools as the Predecessors of Universities in the Beyond the Alps Territory Sacrum Imperium Romanum during the High and Late Middle Ages?)
pp. 32–66
The territory of the Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Imperium Romanum) had been relatively buzzing with hustling educational activity since the Carolingian era. However, a certain deficit of a qualitative alternative to the university centres, well-known during the High Middle Ages from the other parts of that time Europe, had been present till the foundation of the university in Prague in 1348. Within the German speaking territory of Sacrum Imperium Romanum the mendicants monastic schools (general and particular studies) sui generis had been featured as the immediate predecessor of the local universities, at least in particular cases within the theological field.

Before the foundation of the Charles University in Prague, 28 establishments, conceived as studia, are supposed to have existed in the Central Europe area. Mostly Dominicans in their general study in Cologne, formally founded in 1248, meant to be probably the most international and the best educated entity in the German territory, in the most numerous urban commune of that region.

The Dominican school of that place earned the international respect mostly thanks to the work of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, although the gap between the foundation of the general study and the constitution of the university (University privileges for the city of Cologne were delivered by Urban VI on 21st May 1388 in Perugia) accounted for long 140 years. Even the activities of the latter university took place in the local Dominican and Franciscan convent premises. In the area of the Teutonic Dominican province, there supposed to be two or three schools educating their scholars in the lower – logical – degree of philosophical foundations on the particular, so called provincial schools level. About the year 1284 Teutonia was said to keep already seven of the artistic schools in Regensburg, Basel, Worms, Würzburg, Leipzig, Neuruppin and Halberstadt at its disposal. Later in the 14th century there were fare more of different types of Dominican particular studies (comp. the table n.). The effective structure of the Dominican studying centres was highly developed and rationally organized, due to that fact, it became a fundamental part of the posterior educational background, in which the university was definitely established within the beyond the Alps territory Sacrum Imperium Romanum in the second half of 14th century.

Keywords: High and Late Middle Ages; Dominicans; Medieval Education; Universities; General Studies; Autonomous Dominican Schools;

GULYÁS, László Szabolcs
From Latin to Hungarian. Transforming of official Written Practice in the Market-Towns of Hegyalja from the 14th to the 17th Century (Od latinčiny k maďarčine. Premena úradného písomníctva v trhových mestách v regióne Hegyalja od 14. do 17. storočia)
pp. 67–86
The study examines the official literacy of a characteristic region of medieval Hungary. This territory is the Hegyalja, which located in the north-eastern part of the Medieval Hungarian Kingdom, and where some important viticulturist market-towns located from the time of the Middle Ages. These settlements owned developed official written culture, they had the right to write vineyard sale contracts and to corroborate them with their own seals. From the 14th to the 16th centuries these documents were written exclusively in Latin, but from the mid 16th century, Hungarian language also started to spread in the region. The main aim of this study to present this development between the 14th and the 17th Centuries.

Keywords: Medieval Hungary; Medieval Hegyalja Region; Medieval Market-Towns; Issuing of Charters; Literacy;

RÁBAI, Krisztina
An Educated Jagiellonian Prince (Vzdelaný Jagelovský princ)
pp. 87–106
The Jagiellonian family became a potential ruling dynasty in Europe for the beginning of the 16th century. Casimir IV has a great role to reach this position. Besides important political arrangements, and relevant provisions he also had paid attention to the education of the new generation of Jagiellons. His sons (Vladislaus, Casimir, John Albert, Alexander, Sigismund, Frederick) had a proper education as we can see it in the mirror of contemporary sources. Albeit the fact, that narrative sources contain information about the upbringing of the princes, there are other type of written sources which refer to the literacy and the erudition not only the sons but also the grandchildren of Casimir and Elisabeth. There is a unique work connected to the of the lately mentioned Elisabeth (of Austria), the mother of the prominent Jagiellonians, whose rule and political actions determined the history of Central Europe -- directly -- for decades and -- indirectly -- for centuries. The title of this treatise is 'De institutione regii pueri'. Regarding to this source and also to the court accounts of the Jagiellons, one can see the complexity of royal education. In this medieval/early modern period it has a special aspect concerning not only the transfer of "classical" knowledge, but also a proper way of life and a Christian moral which worthy enough to follow. There are numerous, barely analysed circumstantial evidences which refer to the character and the knowledge of people from the investigated target group. The habits and behaviour of the Jagiellonian brothers come into prominence in their accounts. The informative sentences shed light on the effect of their physical, mental and intellectual education as well. By the examination of them, we can see the general and also the unique elements of these personalities.

Keywords: Jagiellonian Family; Educational Treatise; Court Accounts of Prince Sigismund;

Między literaturą a pragmatyzmem. Pamięć historyczna rodziny Czarnkowskich (Between Literature and Pragmatism. Historical Memory of the Family Czarnkowski)
pp. 107–120
The story about the origins of the Czarnkowski family (Nałęcz coat of arms) originated in the 16th century, at a time when its representatives held prominent posts not only in Wielkopolska, but also throghout Poland. It was created, among other things, on the basis a group of false documents, forged in the first half of the 16th century. Although historical sources confirm the presence of the family in the areas bordering the river Noteć only since the 14th century, the story goes back to the family history from the 10th century. The long “history” of the family was created due to pragmatic reasons: on the one hand, to enhance the prestige of the family, on the other, to confirm rights to some estates.

Keywords: Czarnkowski Family; Historical Memory; Heraldry; Genealogy;

Stalinove narodeniny – účel, podoba a priebeh akcie v Československu (Stalin’s Birthday – Purpose, Form and Process of Event in Czechoslovakia)
pp. 121–136
The article deals with the celebration of the 70th birthday J. V. Stalin in Czechoslovakia, which took place presented in December 1949. It shows the preparation for this event, the establishment and staffing of their main organizer. It describes the course and content of various celebrations planned actions and their ideological orientation. The paper analyze celebrations in the broader context of the contemporary phenomenon of – the formation the cult of personality in Czechoslovakia and also connects them with another contemporary celebratory action – Days of Czechoslovak-Soviet Friendship. It notes the time and organizational problems that were preparing mass events accompanied and examines the spread propaganda contained in this feast.

Keywords: Stalin; Celebration; Cult of Personality; Czechoslovakia; 1949;

Nové úlohy učiteľov na Slovensku v období vrcholiaceho stalinizmu (1948 – 1953) (New tasks of teachers in Slovakia during the period of culmination of Stalinism (1948 – 1953))
pp. 137–154
The paper is analysing a new situation of teachers in Slovakia during the period of culmination of communist dictate, when the whole educational process on all levels of schools was subordinated by direct dictated of the one political subject – the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (CPC). To the ideology of CPC – Marxism-Leninism was subordinated also all activity of teachers. The pedagogues were exposed to the strong ideological pressure. The paper is offering a picture about strategy applied toward teachers, who were not conforming to the requirements of CPC. The pedagogues who were unwilling to comply with the new conditions, were released, or transferred to schools in the remoted regions situated in small villages. The leadership of CPC was fully aware of deep influence which teachers have upon pupils and students. The paper is mapping the strategy of school authorities in pursuance of education in line with ideology of Marxism-Leninism. Teachers were obliged to attend various ideological and political lectures and classes. At the same time they were obliged to increase their qualification via study in addition to their teaching duties. The paper also elaborate on various activities performed by pedagogues, which were not connected to their professional duties.

Keywords: Educational Process; Leading Role of Communist Party of Czechoslovakia; Teachers;


Pramene cirkevnej povahy k vzdelanosti vidieckeho obyvateľstva v 17. storočí (The sources of ecclesiastical character to the educational system of country population in the 17th century)
pp. 155–161
The author of present work, based on the study of the original archive materials, seeks to mention at the problematic of the national educational system in provincial ambient of Bratislava archidiaconatus in the age of modern times, accordingly in the 17. century. As we advise of that further, there was the area with ethnicly and religiously mixed population, however with dominance of Slovak nation and roman catholic religion. In our work we monitor the amount of schools in this age, their level, condition, the number of scholars, eventually the person of teacher and his total receipts, in that criterion, in the quality of relevant historical fonts. In the complicated process of self-awakening nations the educational system represented unsubstitutable role, which was in the age of modern times furthest the affair of churches. Only enlightenical monarchs testified greater interest in the educational system, which became the part of their state cultural politics.

Keywords: Education; History; Slovakia; School; Visitation;

Divadelné hry ako forma vzdelávania v humanistickom školstve (Divadelné hry Ondreja Rochotského. Úvod do problematiky) (Theater plays as a form of education in the humanistic educational system. (Ondrej Rochotius and his theater plays. Introduction to the topic))
pp. 162–169
In the 16th century in Europe there was a period of prosperity of School theater. During this period, Catholic or Protestant schools were characterized by significant confesionality. Religious educational system included the strengthening of the true faith and one of its facilities was also a Latin school drama. Pedagogical goals here praedominated and its purpose was to exercise students in the language of Latin authors. Due to the exercise of speech, school drama had to be written in Latin. Many schools used the plays, that were written specifically for the needs of a concrete particular school. The School dramatic plays have a lot of roles because they were submitted by students and it was necessary to employ students as much as possible. They must also have a moralistic or religious undertone to train other people. Consequently they utilized Ideas mostly from the Bible, especially from the Old Testament. From Slovakia actually we have not any texts of Latin school drama passed on this period. We have only reports of the theater, which has been played in larger cities with the German bourgeoisie; e.g. in Bardejov, Prešov, Kremnica, Banská Štiavnica, Banská Bystrica, and also about the tradition of playng Latin theatre continued by evangelical schools in the 17th century. Ondrej Rochotský – Rochotius (1583 – after 1623) – Slovak native permanently operating in the Bohemia and Moravia, treated in his Latin verse school dramas the Old Testament biblical themes. School drama Gedeon (Gideon) dramatizes the story of Gideon (Book of Judges, Chapter 6. and 7.), which ousted Midian and liberated Jerusalem. Content of drama Josephiados is an Old Testament story from the book of Genesis of Joseph in Egypt (Genesis 39. – 41.) in 1365 verses. File dates from the year 1608 or 1609, when O. Rochotský managed school in Czech Prostějov. Both religious school dramas of Rochotius (play Gideon allegorize the current military-political events in the Bohemia) aimed also to firm up current ideological and religious-political striving of Protestants – to persevere in faith, not to give in and not lose hope in the final victory.

Keywords: School Theater; Latin Drama; Ondrej Rochotius; Bible; Joseph; Gedeon;

„Jiskry v temnu?“ Evangeličtí venkovští písmáci jako nositelé české vzdělanosti v pobělohorském období (The Sparkles in the Dark? Evangelic Rural Writers as the Bearers of Czech Literacy after Battle of White Mountain)
pp. 170–183
The aim of this paper is to approach non-Catholic rural writers (písmáci) during Counter-Reformation period in Czech lands with the stress on 18th century relating to the questions of literacy and education. My study consists of two halves. The first half contains enumeration of the characteristics of the scribe archetype, acquired by analysis of popular publication of the church historian František Bednář Jiskry v temnu. Obrazy ze zápasů českého člověka (Sparkles in the dark. Pictures from the struggles of a Czech man. Prague 1938). The results of the work with such a type of a source material make a picture of a “second life“ of the literacy available, in such a form, as it was perceived by the protestant society of 19th and 20th centuries and partly remained actual till the present. Characteristic features attributed to the scribes – often idealised and actualised according to the actual “social demand” are in the second part of the presentation confronted with the actual state of research in the topic introduced on the aspects of the biographs of two writers from Bohemian-Moravian Highlands – Řehoř Jakubec (1726 – 1786) and Tomáš Juren (1750 – 1829).

Keywords: Writers; Protestant Society; Counter-Reformation; Literacy; Czech Lands;

NAGY, Imrich
Vnímanie etnicity vo Vedomostiach Mateja Bela (Perception of ethnicity in Matej Bel’s Knowledge)
pp. 184–190
In Knowledge of contemporary Kingdom of Hungary (Notitia Hungariae Novae) written in Latin, Matej Bel (Mathias Belius, Bél Mátyás) gives a detailed geographic, historical and ethnographic description of particular Hungarian counties from the position of 18’s century man (the project of his Knowledge is dated at 1723 – 1749). Ethnic identification and naming of inhabitants of particular counties and seats are part of this description. Ethnonyms Hungari, Germani and Slavi are the most frequent, but he also identifies members of other ethnic groups who lived in researched area: e.g. Bohemi, Moravi, Poloni, Croatae etc. However, the interpretation of these terms is not unequivocal in all cases. The most of questions are connected with understanding of ethnonyms Hungarus and Slavus. In the first case, Slovak historiography oscillates between political understanding (natio Hungarica, i.e. in the meaning of Hungarian citizenship) and ethnical (e.g. lingua Hungarica). In the second case, according to historical connections, we come across interpretations from the general name Slav to entirely specific Slovak. However, using these interpretative rules in Bel’s work is not always unequivocal. Bel uses ethnonym Hungarus in the opposition to other ethnonyms as a distinctive characteristic. Slavi, who are perceived as a part of Hungari, are exception (expressed by stressing of nostri Slavi). Subsequently, he assignes ethnic features to them (language, customs and history), which stresses their equality with Hungarians, who created common state with them. Bel also does not distinguish differences between terms Slav/Slovien and Slovak (that ethnonym we found in one case in the Latin form Slowakus). Only in exceptional cases, he uses specific term Slavinus that is equal to Slavs (Venedi Slavique). The starting point of his argumentation is the continuity of Slovak ethnic group since the times of Great Moravia.

Keywords: Matej Bel (Mathias Belius, Bél Mátyás); Ethnonyms (Hungari, Slavi, Germani); Perception of Ethnicity; Historiography; 18th Century;

RÁCOVÁ, Katarína
Vodné toky Nitrianskej stolice v Belových Vedomostiach (Water courses of the Nitra County in Bel´s Notitia)
pp. 191–197
Matthias Bel in his work Notitia Hungariae Novae historico-geographica (in English the „Historical and Geographical Knowledge of New Hungary) offered a contemporary view of the condition, significance, response and specific features of Hungarian counties within the Habsburg monarchy. The aim of the presented study is published the first Slovak translation of Paragraph V of the natural scientific part of the Notitia of the Nitra County in which Bel briefly described water courses.

Keywords: Matthias Bel; Water Courses; Nitra County; Historical and Geographical Knowledge of New Hungary;

KOPPAN, Vladimír
Boje 25. gardového streleckého zboru na prístupoch do Bratislavy v dňoch 31. marca až 2. apríla 1945 (Fighting of the 25th Guard Rifle Corps at the entry points to Bratislava from March 31 to April 2, 1945)
pp. 198–209
The Bratislava-Brno operation was the largest military operation on the territory of the current Slovakia. The 25th Guard Rifle Corps has also participated in the fights that took place in the context of this event. This work is dedicated exactly to this unit and its subordinate divisions. The focus is on the timeline of the operations lasting from crossing the river Vah until reaching the eastern outskirts of Bratislava. In the text is the advance of three Soviet divisions towards the capital of the Slovak state described, as well as the proceedings of the fights, the number of combat losses and dislocation during the offensive. The work is mostly based on the archive sources mainly coming from the Central Archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, which were only declassified a few years ago. This paper brings so a new perspective to the previously untreated theme.

Keywords: Slovakia; the Red Army; Liberation of Slovakia;


Zoborské listiny z rokov 1111 a 1113 ako genealogický a historicko-geografický prameň (The Zobor Charters of 1111 and 1113 as a Source for Genealogy and Historical Geography)
pp. 210–217
The Zobor Charters of 1111 and 1113 belong to the oldest and most important sources of the Slovak history. Their significance lies not only in the knowledge of the Church history, but also of the socio-cultural circumstances shortly after the forcible termination of the Granted Dukedom of Nitra. Thanks to their existence we can identify the most significant nobility in Nitra personified in the Poznan family. The charter of 1113 maps the historical geographical conditions of the south-western Slovakia.

Keywords: Nitra; Zobor Abbey (Benedictine monastery); the Noble Family Poznan;

Luxus v uhorskej literatúre do konca 13. storočia (Luxury in the Hungarian Literature to the End of the Thirteenth Century)
pp. 218–230
Main focus of this paper is set to the analysis of the Hungarian literature in the Árpadian era in order to find the information about the unusual and luxurious goods that the nobility used in their everyday life or as the means of representation. Connected to this is the lifestyle, marked by the social prestige or noblesness. This mentality is based on the ownership of these various luxurious commodities, either movable or real, or it could be vice-versa, meaning that the ownership of these luxurious goods affected and formed the mentality and the social status of the aristocracy. People could value the luxurious goods either for their high price and artwork or either for their symbolic value. And the symbolic value of the object was given to it by the literature. The goods in the literary works, such as hagiographic legends, chronicles or deeds, were influenced by the real-world goods, as well as the real-world goods were influenced by the symbolic value that literature gave them. That is the power of the literature and its author: it can affect its reader or listener in the way he desire, and the whole society with it. This paper will try to provide some new view on the narrative sources, when identifying the luxurious objects and their role in medieval culture and society.

Keywords: Hungary; Árpáds; Literature; Luxury; Representation;

K problému interpretácie povojnového osudu Jánosa Esterházyho v slovenskej historiografii (To the problem of interpretation of post-war destiny of Janos Esterhazy in the Slovak historiography)
pp. 231–241
The personality of Janos Esterhazy, a Hungarian minority politician in the period of interwar Czechoslovak Republic and in the Slovak State, is not an unknown element in the history of historiography. Difficulty in evaluation of his political activities is one of the most typical examples of different views of the Hungarian and Slovak historians. This contribution points to the state of reflexion of this personality in the Slovak historiography with the professional works of historians with an attempt to interpret the historical correlations binding to Esterhazy, focusing on his post-war destiny. An overview reveals that this part of his life is expressed by Slovak historians as a tragic personal and political chapter but they proclaim that an inadequate punishment does not qualify the historians to look at him as a symbolic person without critical reflection.

Keywords: Janos Esterhazy; a Hungarian minority in the Czechoslovak Republic and in the Slovak State; Post-War Jurisdiction;


GOFF, Jacques Le: O hranicích dějinných období. Na příkladu středověku a renesance. Praha: Karlova univerzita – Karolinum, 2014, 89 s. (Ján Jakubej), pp. 262–265

BOLOM-KOTARI, Sixtus: Svoboda svědomí. Superintendent Michael Blažek a protestantská společnost pozdního osvícenství. Praha: Historický ústav AV ČR, Matice Moravská, 20165, 568 s. (Dávid Jablonský), pp. 265–267

GÖDÖLLE, Mátyás – PALLOS, Lajos: Budapest. Magyar Nemzeti Múzeum, 2014, 359 o. SZENT ISTVÁN LOVAGJAI. A legrangosabb kitüntetés 250 éve. Kiállítási katalógus. 2014. május 5. – augusztus 31. (Silvia Némethová), pp. 267–273

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 274–283

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 284–288

Pokyny pre autorov/ Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 289–293

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