Studia Historica Nitriensia 22 (2018), 1

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 22 (2018), 1
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Miroslav Palárik - Zuzana Hasarová



Štúdie a články/Articles/Studien

Faces from the Past. Some Thoughts about Anthropomorphic and Zoomorphic Figurines and Images in the Neolithic Period (Tváre minulosti. Niekoľko úvah o antropomorfnej a zoomorfnej plastike a vyobrazeniach v neolite)
pp. 3–26
The aim of this article is to present some thoughts about a specific type of archaeological sources within a diverse collection of art depicting humans and animals in the Neolithic (New Stone Age). From the aspect of artistic representation, these artifacts reach their climax in the time when first agricultural cultures appear. Besides taking their different cultural and chronological character into consideration, the goal of this work is to present them in the light of the latest discoveries and information.

Keywords: Neolithic; Anthropomorphic Figurines; Zoomorphic Figurines; Motifs; Interpretation;
GÁLIK, Zdenko
Abrahám Rufus – spoločenské postavenie, vojenské zásluhy a majetková doména (1278/1291 – 1326). Etnický a sociálny pôvod Abraháma Rufusa (Abraham Rufus - his Social Status, Military Merit and Property Domain (1278/1291 – 1326). Etnic and Social Origin of Abraham Rufus)
pp. 27–57
The author deals with Abraham Rufus, one of the biggest landowners in the area of present southwestern Slovakia. He observes his fast career promotion, military merit and loyal services to the Hungarian king Andrew III. during his fights against both domestic and foreign enemies of the Hungarian kingdom in the end of 13th century. He also observes the relationship of Abraham Rufus to Matthew Czak. In his services Rufus presents himself as a loyal familiar. The author searches the property domain of Abraham Rufus, tries to reconstruct his relatives, mentions the ranks he achieved during the reign of Andrew III. The atention is focused on the relationship between the king Charles Robert and Abraham Rufus. In the conclusion of his study the author observes the division of Abraham Rufus´s property among his four sons as well as the way they dealt with the property they were left.

Keywords: Abraham Rufus; Southwestern Slovakia; Feudal Anarchy; King Andrew III.; King Charles Robert of Anjou; 13th – 14th Century;

GLEJTEK, Miroslav
Ochrana proti falšovaniu listín vydávaných hodnovernými miestami v stredovekom uhorskom zákonodarstve (Protection Against Falsification of Charters Issued by Places of Authentication in the Hungarian Medieval Legislation)
pp. 58–78
Major cases of violation of law in the Middle Ages included falsification of documents of a legal nature (charters). The falsification of documents could cause considerable damages to a property of individuals and groups of people. Due to this reason, a considerable attention was paid to falsification of documents and protection against the falsification in the medieval legislation. Important publishers of documents in the Medieval Hungarian society were the so called places of authentication (loca credibilia). The presented article focuses on the chapters and conventions that provided such function in the Middle Ages. The importance of these institutions in the protection against unauthorized publishing of charters is also evidenced in several legal standards. The article provides an analysis of the legal standards, in particular the royal decrees (laws), the customary law and particular statutes of chapters of canons.

Keywords: Kingdom of Hungary; Middle Ages; Legislation; Law; Falsification; Charter; Places of Authentication;

Military violence in towns during the Thirty Years’ War – The Czech and central European context (Násilí páchané vojáky ve městech za třicetileté války – český a středoevropský kontext)
pp. 79–103
This study focuses on one of the phenomena of mutual confrontation of military element and civilians, manifestations and forms of violent physical aggression perpetrated by soldiers on the civilian population, including women during the armed conflict of 1618–1648. It also attempts to categorize this violence and identify and describe the triggers. The research is based on a study of resources from selected Czech towns.

Keywords: Army; Violence; Rape; Thirty Years' War; Central Europe; Bohemia; The History of Towns;

ŠPROCHA, Branislav – TIŠLIAR, Pavol – ĎURČEK, Pavol
Socialistický model populačnej politiky a reprodukčné správanie na Slovensku (Socialist Model of Population Policy and Reproductive Behaviour in Slovakia)
pp. 104–131
The study examines the development of population policy in socialist Slovakia in connection to reproductive behaviour between 1948 and 1989. The paper analyses the nature and gradual spreading of various types of population measures aimed at pregnant women, the period of childbirth and postnatal care, interruptions, the life of families with children, as well as the entry into the marriage and its legislative extinction. As our contribution has shown during the Socialist regime, a complex system of different forms of population measures was gradually developed. They represented an important part of the overall complex of external factors influencing the intensity, timing and character of the reproductive and family behaviour of the socialist Slovakia.

Keywords: Population Policy; Pro-natalist Measures; Family and Reproductive Behaviour; Socialist Slovakia;

RODAN, Kamil
Žít se ctí aneb účast Věry Běhalové na církevním procesu Bárta a spol. na počátku 50. let 20. století (The honorable Life: The Trial of Věra Běhalová in the religious discrimination Lawsuit to Barta and Company in the early 1950´s)
pp. 132–154
Religious discrimination lawsuits of the late 1940s and early 1950s are one of the darkest chapters of Czechoslovak history. In the largest of these (Bárta and Comp.), the late art historian Věra Běhalová (1922–2010) was sentenced to treason and spying at the beginning of November 1952, Věra Běhalová conscientious Catholic and female employee of the French Embassy, at the request of Charles University professor Růžena Vacková, was instructed to deliver a secret correspondence and send it by diplomatic post to the capitalist countries. The seven-year sentence was served by Věra Běhalová in full across a number of Czechoslovakian prisons, including in famous Želiezovce near Nitra in Slovakia. The desire to study forced Věra Běhalová, to emigrate in October 1969 to Austria where she studied at the University of Vienna and became famous in her field. Thanks to her unfortunate fate, she worked for the Czech diaspora abroad and helped Czech students and scientists altruisticly.

Keywords: Věra Běhalová; Bárta and Company; 20th Century; Discrimination; Lawsuit; Church;


Budovanie zdravotníckych a zdraviu prospešných zariadení v Trnave v medzivojnovom období (The Building Health and Health Benefits Institutions in Trnava in the Inter-War Period)
pp. 155–173
The study focuses on the construction of the two most important health institutions in Trnava, the Hospital and the District Sickness Insurance Company and the construction of City Steam Baths to make a significant contribution to improving health and hygiene conditions in Trnava. Archival research is connected with the development of healthcare in the territory of Slovakia and the transformation of the City of Trnava during the Period of the 1st Czechoslovak Republic. The building of health and health benefits institutions in Trnava during the Inter-War Period was supported mainly by active directors at the head of medical facilities, the founders of these organizations, the supreme state authorities, which also decided on state aid in the construction of generally useful facilities. The leaders of the Czechoslovak Republic supported this development by adopting building laws and financial support.

Keywords: First Czechoslovak Republic; Slovakia and Trnava during the Inter-War Period; Health Service; Construction;


Miesto mravnej výchovy v diele Tobiasa Gottfrieda Schröera (The role of moral education in Tobias Gottfried Schröer’s works)
pp. 174–193
The present study contributes an analysis of pedagogical and aesthetic-educational ideas contained in the works (textbooks, compendia) written by an aesthetician Tobias Gottfried Schröer (1791–1850). His ideas explicitly communicate his inclination towards moral and religious education. The perspective accounting for the coexistence of the moral and aesthetic is adopted to compare Schröer’s writings and ideas with those of his close contemporaries who lived and wrote in Upper Hungary in the 19th century. In the centre of attention is Andrej Vandrákʼs concept of ethics (as a perfect example of understanding the moral through the aesthetic aspects and through the dispositions of the human inner self), the aesthetics of Michal Greguš, Karol Kuzmány, and others. The aim of the study is, by means of comparison, to point to several solutions to the issue of the moral good that draw on at once identical and different sources in selected works of his contemporaries.

Keywords: Moral Education; Aesthetic Education; Religious Education; Compendium; Textbook; Tobias Gottfried Schröer;

Diagnosing Brazil: Paulo Prado in search of brazilian identity (Diagnostikování Brazílie: Paulo Prado a jeho hledání brazilské identity)
pp. 194–224
This paper deals with Brazilian social thinker Paul Prado as a significant contributor to a quite extensive question of Brazilian national identity. Prado can be considered a figure linking older late 19th-century Brazilian thinkers whose search for national identity mirrored influences of European positivism and biological determinism and modernists who attempted to introduce Brazil to modernity and give it a totally new, “modern“ self-image, i.e. independent national identity through arts and explain Brazil as an independent culture. Paulo Prado belonged to one of the richest paulista families, but spent considerable part of his life in Paris, close to Cenáculo português, formed by eminent Portuguese intellectuals. Exposed to such influences Prado elaborated his own concept of Brazilian national identity whose theoretical basis can be rightfully called “European“. In his work Prado makes use of the same critère explicatif that is frequently present in 19th-century “diagnoses“ of national identity and culture: climate, countryside, history, race, soul etc. The same approach is identifiable in the father of Portuguese modern historiography, Alexandre Herculano, in Portuguese Geração de 1870, in French intellectuals like Augustin Thierry, Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan or Spanish representatives of Generación 98. The common denominator of these theories is something I would call “preeminent critère explicatif du XIXème siècle: la race, le milieu, le moment“.

Keywords: Paulo Prado; History; Brazil; Race; Soul; Territory; Decadence;

ŠMÍD, Marek
Otázka finančního odškodnění nitranského biskupa Vilmose Batthyányho po jeho odchodu z ČSR v roce 1919 (The question of financial compensation of the bishop of Nitra Vilmos Batthyány after his departure from Czechoslovakia in 1919)
pp. 225–238
The study deals with the question of indemnification of the Nitra bishop V. Batthyány, who headed the diocese in 1911–1920. His deportation from Czechoslovakia to Hungary in March 1919 opened up a complex question of Czechoslovak-Vatican diplomatic relations which represented a financial settlement that was subsequently resolved by Czechoslovak and Vatican diplomats in 1920–1924. The Czechoslovak party acknowledged the legitimacy of the complaint of the evicted bishops and agreed to their financial compensation. The whole issue was attributed mainly to the Czechoslovak Foreign Minister's reluctance to meet this obligation, the unclear competencies between the various administrative authorities, and the high demands of former bishops who demanded not only high financial retirement, but also the return of all personal belongings from Slovakia and their financial share. The question of who will finance the bishops, the state, the diocese, or both institutions together, remained till the end unclear. In spite of the urgency of the Vatican Party, the negotiations dragged on until 1924, although the death of V. Batthyány had occurred a year earlier.

Keywords: Nitra; The Bishopric of Nitra; Vilmos Batthyány; Karol Kmeťko; Czechoslovak-Vatican Relations; 1918–1923;


Reštaurovanie historickej knižnej tlače z konca 16. storočia ,,Blebel, Thomas: De spaera et primis astronomiae rudimentibus libellus“ (Restoration of Historical Book Printing from the End of 16th Century ,,Blebel, Thomas: De Spaera et primis astronomiae rudimentibus libellus“)
pp. 239–258
The article is oriented to the preservation and restoration of rare literary press from parchment bookbinding, according to modern technological procedures. At the same time, the study provides an overview of basic restoration methods for historical books and their care recommendations.

Keywords: Preservation; Protection; Paper; Parchment; Restoration;


SEDLÁČEK, Tibor: Doklady náboženstva Churritov v starovekom Urkeši. (Michal Habaj) pp. 259–260

Kronika/Chronicle/Chronik – pp. 261–264

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia – pp. 265–269

Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren – pp. 270–274

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