Studia Historica Nitriensia 23 (2019), Supplementum

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Studia Historica Nitriensia 23 (2019), Supplementum
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Studia Historica Nitriensia
Studia Historica Nitriensia Constantine the Philosopher University in Nitra Hodžova 1, 94901 Nitra
Miroslav Palárik - Zuzana Hasarová - Alena Mikulášová



Vedecké štúdie / Original Research

Maskovité korálky na Moravě
(The “mask-beads” and the “bobbin-beads“ in Moravia)
pp. 21–32
The special type of Iron Age glass decoration represents so called “mask“ beads. This topic was developed by M. Karwowski, who divided the beads into the two types – the “mask-beads“ (type 904 after Venclová), and the “bobbin-beads“ (type 904 after Venclová). In Central Europe both types were known already in LT C1 and they continued to occur until the late La Tène Period. They are still rare in Moravia: in addition to few old finds, a few other finds have been reported from other places. However, most of these new artefacts unfortunately did not originate from closed find complexes, but they were found by surface survey. The distribution map shows these artefacts barely occur to the north and west of Moravia.

Keywords: Moravia; La Tène Period; Mask-Beads; Bobbin-Beads; Glass;

New Finds of Bronze Fibulae with Enamel – What Women Liked to Wear during the Middle and Late La Tène in the Southern Carpathian Basin
(Nové nálezy bronzových spôn s emailom – čo ženy rady nosili počas strednej a neskorej doby laténskej v južnej časti Karpatskej kotliny)
pp. 33–47
The characteristic forms of the Middle La Tène female costume in the southeastern and eastern Carpathian Basin include the fibulae that have a rectangular plaque on the end of the foot, with depressions of different shapes filled with colourful enamel. They have characteristic rectangular plaques located on the end of the foot, between a single spherical knob on each side, which have depressions of different shapes. The foot can end with an anchor-shaped terminal above the spring, which most often consists of six or eight coils connected with an external chord. Insights have shown that the Middle La Tène forms of fibulae with enamel are found in the greatest number in the southeastern Carpathian Basin and along the Tisza River, but they have also been recorded on sites from Slovakia to Transylvania. On the basis of all known finds, the distinct variants can probably be dated to late phase of LT C1 and LT C2, with particular forms only rarely characterising particular areas, which possibly included the workshops where they were produced. One of these rare narrowly distributed forms is represented by the fibulae of the Boljevci variant, which are probably characteristic for LT C2 and are currently restricted to the southeastern Carpathian Basin with isolated finds more to the south, in the area of the western and central Balkans, where they probably arrived by means of cultural transfers and/or the mobility of the women who wore them. An even narrower distribution can be seen for the more complex form of the Late La Tène fibula with enamel or the Gomolava-type fibula, which has been found – similarly to the fibulae of the Boljevci variant – only on the sites in the southern Carpathian Basin, with one exception on those attributed to the Scordisci.

Keywords: Female Costume; Fibulae with Enamel; Middle La Tène; Late La Tène; Southern Carpathian Basin; Identity; Workshops;

GODIŠ, Jakub
Ženský kroj v kosziderskom období ako fenomén stredného Podunajska
(Women’s costume in Koszider period as Middle Danube phenomenon)
pp. 49–70
The paper primarily deals with the issue of inner-development and significance of the specific type of arc-shaped needle clasp, which represents a characteristic artifact for the Carpathian-Danube area during Koszider period (the so-called „sickle-pins“). Additionally, it gives an overview of the basic elements of female costume -metal garnish of clothing and body at the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, where it compares the occurrence of jewelry in hoards of bronze artifacts with their real representation in funeral features (inhumation burials). In conclusion, the question of the possibility of significant interregional cultural interactions in the end of the mentioned period is sketched. These can be reflected by „influencing“ the local metallurgical production of pins and jewelry, in particularly some of its attributes like decoration and functional elements, which otherwise do not originate in the Carpathian bronze metal industry production tradition.

Keywords: Middle Bronze Age; Koszider Period; Middle Danube Region; Jewelry; Garb; Costume; Burial;

What can the dwarfs tell? On settlements and anthropomorphic statuary in La Tène Southern Moravia
(Co dokážou říct trpaslíci? O sídlištích a antropomorfních soškách na jižní Moravě doby laténské)
pp. 71–92
Over the last decade, two new sites were identified during fieldwalking in the territory of Lednice, Břeclav District, Southern Moravia. Finds from the Bronze Age, La Tène period, Roman Iron Age and Early Middle Ages have been collected in the sites but only the most numerous La Tène artefacts are discussed in this paper. Since human presence of the Roman Iron Age is attested in both sites, the attribution of some insufficiently characteristic artefacts (bronze rings, fragments of bronze bars, traces of bronze smelting) to the La Tène or Roman Iron Age is not certain.

Keywords: La Tène C; Southern Moravia; Settlement; Bronze; Anthropomorphic Figurine;

GUŠTIN, Mitja – BOŽIČ, Dragan
Das Druidenrätsel vom Kugelstein in der Steiermark
(The druid’s mystery from Kugelstein in Styria)
pp. 93–105
The mountain ridge of Kugelstein rises above the right bank of the river Mur between Frohnleiten and Deutschfeistritz in central Styria, Austria. Located at its northern end, at an altitude of 544 m asl, is a prehistoric and Roman hillfort of Kugelstein, which dominates the Mur in its narrow stretch near Badl. A 2 km long area to the west of the mountain ridge was systematically surveyed between 1980 and 1985, unearthing more than 400 artefacts mainly made of iron. Most are weapons and military equipment or their parts. The finds predominantly date to LT B2 and are kept in the Burgmuseum Archeo Norico Deutschlandsberg. They are presumed to be the remains of a military conflict, making the area a battlefield. The contribution only discusses part of the finds, which came to light on a small terrace, called Druidenplatz, in the eastern zone of the investigated area. The finds date to LT B2. Most are made of iron (weapons, military equipment, fibulae, eight pointed rods – possibly surgical instruments), only two of bronze that include a small figure of a bull. They may have belonged to a single warrior, such as those called druids in later periods.

Keywords: Styria; Kugelstein; Battlefield; Late Iron Age; Druids;

HORVÁTH M., Attila
A preliminary study of a rare fibula type (the so called Altmark fibulae) from the La Tène cemetery of Csepel
(Predbežná štúdia k zriedkavému typu spôn (spony typu Altmark) z laténskeho pohrebiska v Csepeli)
pp. 107–124
In the gravel pits around Bécsi domb, Sopron, clay vessels, iron and bronze items were found in the beginning of the 1870s. Most of them got lost, but one of the finds was noticed by the painter and art collector F. Storno Jr. who acquired the goods of several graves in 1872, 1878 and 1879 for his collection. The collected findings were published by F. Pulszky in the 1880 issue of Archaeologiai Értesítő. He identified the findings as goods of a male burial (iron spear head, scissors, cutting knife/Ger. “Hiebmesser”, iron fibulae and an iron object folded into a rectangular shape) and one or more female burials (bronze bracelets, bronze fibulae: a pair of a dragon head fibulae linked with a chain, a disc-footed applied plate fibula and a Duchov type fibula with profiled bow; Pl. I: 1). F. Pulszky presented drawings of several ornamented ceramic vessels. Whether they are from previously presented or other destroyed graves cannot be decided, just as in the case of the only mentioned bracelets.

Keywords: Csepel; Celtic Cemetery; La Tène A – B Fibulae, Celtic Jewellery;

Príspevok k poznaniu dobovej módy 15. a 16. storočia na príklade nálezov kachlíc z Oponického hradu
(A contribution to the knowledge of period fashion of the 15th and 16th centuries on the example of stove-tile finds from the Oponice castle)
pp. 125–142
The contribution presents an insight to the study of fashion trends on the basis of iconography of front heating walls of Gothic and Renaissance stove-tiles from the Oponice castle. Garments gradually evolved and were adopted to the living conditions which was reflected also in artistic creation. Based on this fact, it is possible to observe the character of the past society by means of iconography on the stove-tiles.

Keywords: Stove-Tiles; Oponice Castle; Iconography; Fashion; Clothes and Garments;

KRUTA, Venceslas
Předchůdce keltského kalendáře: kalendářní pektorál ze Slovenska
(Precursor of the Celtic Calendar: calendar pectoral from Slovakia)
pp. 143–150
The bronze pectoral from Slovakia from the end of the 2nd millenium BC is a unique interface between the neolithic engraving of a lunar calendar from the Irish site of Knowth from the 4th millenium BC and the Gaulish calendar from the 2nd century AD from Coligny. It schematically depicts the mechanism of synchronization of the lunar and solar calendars. Other pectorals of this category, mainly from the 6th – 5th century BC but also from the end of the Bronze Age, illustrate only the course of one year. They are known from Celtic territories as well as areas which are outside their settlement in the time of their origin. Their basic feature is often a spiral – a schematic illustration of the notional course of the sun above and below the horizon from the winter solstice towards the summer solstice.

Keywords: Slovakia; Calendar Pectoral; Galic Calendar from Coligny; Lunisolar Year; Year Representation;

RUSTOIU, Aurel – BERECKI, Sándor
The Late Iron Age Bronze helmet from Apahida (Transylvania)
(Bronzová prilba z neskorej doby železnej z Apahidy (Transylvánia))
pp. 151–168
At the turn of the 20th century, when scientific archaeology was only beginning in Transylvania, antiquarians and amateur archaeologists still played an important role in recovering ancient remains and the related information which were later useful for professional archaeological research. Many had an academic education, especially in humanities or natural sciences. The archaeological collections which were born out of their passion for the past enriched later the collections of various museums. This is the case of the private collection assembled by Endre Orosz, a teacher from Apahida, a locality which is now known for the funerary discoveries belonging to different periods, among other things. Still, this collection had a rather complicated history; only very recently his descendants donated the last remains to the Târgu Mureş Museum. The careful initial registration of this collection contributed to the identification of some artefacts which are already known from specialist literature, and also to the “rediscovery” of some previously unknown items. Among the latter are some fragments of a La Tѐne bronze helmet coming from the Apahida cemetery, still unpublished. These fragments provide an opportunity to resume the debate regarding the typology and chronology of similar pieces from the Carpathian Basin, leading to a series of observations regarding the Early and Middle LT elites of the rural communities from the region in question. Both the problems regarding the La Tѐne chronology in the Carpathian Basin and the analysis of a wide range of artefacts associated with different social groups from this region were thoroughly pursued by Jozef Bujna during the last decades. Accordingly, the topic of this article represents a well-deserved homage for his fruitful scientific activity.

Keywords: Helmet; Late Iron Age; Carpathian Basin; Balkans; Celts;

STYK, Matej
Príspevok k metodike analýzy pohrebného rítu
(A contribution to the methodology of analysis of burial rite)
pp. 169–185
This contribution deals with the forms which archaeology can use to study the burial rites of the past societies. It presents a hypothesis defining the hierarchic procedure of the analysis and defining individual levels of the burial rite and adequate methods. This universal procedure can be defined as linked analytical process. It includes a scale of relevant expert opinions on the given topic as well as a methodological sequence defining the order and types of individual procedures corresponding with submitted conditions.

Keywords: Methodology; Burial Rite; Prehistory; Development Of Burials;

VENCLOVÁ, Natalie – THÉR, Richard – MANGEL, Tomáš
Obroušené grafitové keramické fragmenty v době železné: možnosti interpretace
(Abraded graphite pottery fragments from the Iron Age: interpretation possibilities)
pp. 187–205
Assemblages of Late Hallstatt to La Tène pottery also contain vessel fragments used for secondary purposes. These include graphite sherds with abraded edges, finds of which from Bohemia are listed in the attached inventory. Possible interpretations are discussed, and potential methods for their use in the pottery craft are tested in experiments.

Keywords: Bohemia; Late Hallstatt period; La Tène Period; Graphite Pottery; Secondary Use of Pottery;

Intercultural Codes in the European Civilization Prehistory
(Interkultúrne kódy v prehistórii európskej civilizácie)
pp. 207–213
In this treatise our attention has been focused on a remarkable intercultural phenomenon of European prehistory. It is a pottery surface complement that resembles cord imprints and appears on ceramic vessels made during the Late Neolithic up to the Bronze Age. In a simplified way, it was named the corded ornament and it got to the centre of research via archaeology that, inspired by the decoration pattern, has named its bearers the Corded Ware Culture. Regarding its duration and dispersal, the corded phenomenon space-time model can take almost a thousand years from the end of Aeneolithic up to the Middle Bronze Age and in prehistory of European communities it can be classified as a cultural complex with many local groups.

Keywords: Intercultural Contacts; Western Inner Carpathians; Late Aeneolithic; Early and Middle Bronze Age; Cultural Identity;

Intentional Destruction of Inventory in Celtic Warrior Graves in the Middle Danube Region
(Intencionálne ničenie inventára v keltských bojovníckych hroboch zo stredného Podunajska)
pp. 215–226
Warriors represent a very special group from various perspectives. The grave assemblage is distinctive from other graves on cemetery. It is not reflected only in the presence of weapons and armour, but also in rituals performed before, during and after the burial. Some of these rituals are visible in the archaeological context, about some of them one can only speculate. This paper deals with the territory of the Middle Danube, which covers south-western Slovakia, Transdanubia (north-western Hungary), Moravia and Lower Austria. Data from the territory of Lower Austria and Moravia were, however, insufficient for any detailed analysis. The main problem is a small number of cremation graves belonging to warriors (only 9 graves). However the information about inventory deformation in graves from Lower Austria and Moravia territory is included in the text. Almost all graves contained destroyed eapons. Disturbed graves or graves with insufficient amount of written documentation were not included in the database.

Keywords: Middle Danube Region; Celts; Warrior Graves; Destruction of Inventory;

Prehľadové práce / Review Articles

Etická otázka archeologického výskumu vojnových hrobov – Diskusia
(Ethic question of wartime burials archaeological research – Discussion)
pp. 227–232
The contribution focuses on the ethical aspect of the research of graves and human remains within the archeology of modern militaries. In view of the current state of research, the contribution does not pursue a methodological definition, but rather a discussion of the possibilities of access to the sites in question, which are still controversial by both professional and lay public.

Keywords: Battlefield Archaeology; Excavation of Burials; Etics;

Five notes and questions to several actual problems of the Celtic art
(Pät poznámok a otázok k niekoľkým aktuálnym problémom keltského umenia)
pp. 233–236
Why some Celts did not take over La Tѐne artistic style? If the La Tѐne art was a reflection of a religious movement, as the medieval and post-medieval artistic and architectonic styles generally, the La Tѐne art can be linked to the teaching of the druids and/or Pythagoreans, formed at mid–5th century BC as a reaction to the realistic enlightenment of Anaxagoras and Parthenon time.

Keywords: Celts; La Tène Art; Religion; Notes; Discussion;

Laténske osídlenie na Východoslovenskej nížine
(La Tène settlement in the Východoslovenská nížina lowland)
pp. 237–259
84 sites (53 sett-lements, 9 burial grounds and grave finds, 2 depots of coins) are currently recorded from the Východoslovenská nížina lowland. The topic of this article is topography of La Tène settlements in the territory of the selected region. We follow from available information about collections from surface prospecting and rescue excavations. A more extensive investigation of settlement areas is absent. The partly examined settlement agglomeration in Zemplín is an exception. Presence of first Celts in the south of the Východoslovenská nížina lowland is documented by grave finds from stages LT B1 and LT B2. Their settlements are unknown. Since stage LT C1, the Celtic settlement is stabilized and the network of settlements develops in the central as well as southern parts of the Východoslovenská nížina lowland. The Celts’ advance northwards is documented by settlements along the Ondava, Laborec and Topľa rivers. In the late and final La Tène period (LT C2 – D), a settlement enclave is created on both banks of the Bodrog river, around the well organized settlement agglomeration with its central position in the village of Zemplín.

Keywords: East Slovakia; Východoslovenská nížina Lowland; La Tène Period; Settlements;

TURČAN, Vladimír
Zázemie antického stavebného komplexu v Stupave
(Background to an ancient complex of buildings in Stupava)
pp. 255–260
In the 1st – 4th centuries, several ancient buildings were constructed on the northern (Barbarian) bank of the middle reaches of the Danube. As well as military buildings standing very near to the bank (Devín, Iža near Komárno), inland buildings were also built. Along the route of the amber route, 20 km from Carnuntum, a settlement was built in Stupava in the second half of the 2nd century. By analysing the finds and evidence from the Germanic settlement of the area, the author concluded that it was a trade post dependent on cooperation with the local Germanic population.

Keywords: Slovakia; Roman Period; Ancient Court; Amber Road; Civilisation; Trade Contacts;

Materiálové prípadové štúdie / Material Case Studies

Germánske pohrebisko v Hronovciach
(Germanic burial ground in Hronovce)
pp. 261–312
The Lower Gran region accommodates a large number of polycultural sites from different historical periods, many of which we know only thanks to surface collections. In 2009, research was carried out for scientific and documentary purposes in the village Hronovce, part of Čajakovo, site Rúbaniská (Levice District). On the site were represented prehistoric (Stone Age, Bronze Age) as well as protohistoric finds (Roman period). The article refers to the protohistoric period, when a Germanic necropolis was located there from the end of the Early Roman period (stage B2, B2/C1). Three funeral urns were examined and many small artefacts (fibulae, buckles, weapons, belt components...) and fragments of undecorated and decorated pottery with various designs (barbotino, stamped decoration, toothed wheels, etc.) were discovered. The studied site in Hronovce confirms the intensive settlement of the Lower Gran region by the Quadi in the 2nd century AD, or more precisely at the time of the Marcomannic wars.

Keywords: Lower Gran Region; Hronovce; Early Roman Period; Burial Ground; Pottery; Small Finds;

BORZOVÁ, Zuzana – REPKA, Dominik – BISTÁK, Peter
Ladice, poloha Vlčia lúka a Ladické – výsledky archeologického výskumu polykultúrnej lokality
(Ladice, site Vlčia lúka and Ladické – results of archaeological research of the polycultural site)
pp. 313–338
The goal of this article is to inform mainly on the results of the archaeological research carried out at the studied area during several seasons. The archaeological excavation of Ladice, Vlčia lúka and Ladické sites, was carried out using several research methods among which non-destructive methods predominate. They included an archaeobotanical research whose results confirmed intense use of the local landscape for farming in the past.

Keywords: Nondestructive Archaeological Research; Surface Collection; Pottery; La Téne Period; Roman Period; Middle Ages; Postmedieval Period;

BŘEZINOVÁ, Gertrúda – BUDAJ, Marek
Hromadný nález tetradrachiem typu Huşi-Vovrieşti zo Štitár-Žibrice v kontexte osídlenia regiónu v dobe laténskej
(Hoard of tetradrachms of the Huşi-Vovrieşti type from Štitáre-Žibrica in the context of the s_ettlement of the region in the La Tène Period)
pp. 339–350
The article deals with the find of coins of the tetradrachm type Huşi-Vovrieşti. It discusses also the settlement of the mountainous and sub-mountainous area of the Nitra and Žitava river basins in the La Tène period. Emphasis is placed on the information value of the find and the function of the site where the coins were discovered in the Middle La Tène period. The article attempts to determine whether the location was a refuge or a sacrificial site. Attention is paid to contacts with the surrounding catchment area and the origin of the coins in Eastern Dacia and the territory of Moldavia.

Keywords: Hoard; Tetradrachms Of Huşi-Vovrieşti Type; Moldavia; the 3rd to the First Half of the 2nd Century BC; Nitra and Žitava River Basins;

Archeologické nálezy z Obidu, okres Nové Zámky
(Archaeological finds from Obid, Nové Zámky District)
pp. 351–358
Archival research uncovered documents of research as well as investigation activities in the village of Obid. Finds come from various periods. Part of the finds dated to the La Tène period was bought by the National Museum in Budapest. The finds comprise pottery and a bracelet which were included among grave goods.

Keywords: Archaeological Finds; Archival Research; La Tène Period; Grave Finds, Pottery; Bronze Bracelet;

ČAMBAL, Radoslav – RAMSL C., Peter
Ein latènezeitliches „Kriegergrab“ mit verzierter Schwertklinge aus Plešivec, bezirk Rožňava
(La Tène „Warrior grave“ with stamp decorated sword blade from Plešivec, Rožňava District)
pp. 359–377
A unique find of artifacts deposited in collections of the Slovak National Museum-Archaeological Museum in Bratislava was discovered in the territory of Plešivec. The items were grave goods from a “warrior” cremation burial from the Middle La Tène period. The find of an iron sword in a tin scabbard is unique. The sword’s blade is decorated by still preserved overal stamping with circular stamps creating a design of fish scales. The collection of artifacts includes a knife, a fibula of a Middle La Tène construction, a spearhead and an iron so-called armour belt decorated with stamping and called Panzerknette. The content of the burial is dated to stage LT C1.

Keywords: South-East Slovakia; Middle La Tène Period; Warrior Grave; Stamp Decorated Sword Blade;

Nález keltského řetězového opasku z Kunštátska (okr. Blansko)
(The find of a Celtic chain belt from Kunštát region (Blansko District)
pp. 379–393
The aim of the article is to present a unique finding – almost the entire female bronze chain belt, which was found in the cadastral area of Hluboká u Kunštátu, in a hilly terrain quite far from the traditional settlement of the La Tène period. Based on its location under a flat stone, sacrifice or storage can be considered. Thanks to its integrity, the artefact ranks among the unique findings from the Late La Tène period.

Keywords: Chain Belt; Late La Tène; Ritual Deposition;

GERE, Marek – GEREOVÁ, Martina – RATIMORSKÁ, Priska
Sídlisko z doby laténskej v Iži, km 1759, výskumná sezóna 1959
(Settlement of the La Tène period in Iža, km 1759, excavation season 1959)
pp. 395–413
In 1959, the research led by Blažej Benadik discovered the settlement
layers and features of the Eneolithic and La Tène period in the location Iža – Danube. Within the research there were excavated 7 trenches located just on the river bank of Danube. In the trench I, IV and VII there was found out numerous material of the pits and cultural layer of the La Tène culture that has not cumulatively been processed and published so far. We present it in the contribution in the form of a catalogue together with its summary and dating.

Keywords: Iža; Southwest Slovakia; Settlement; Late La Tène Period; Pottery;

HLAVA, Miloš
Fiktivní laténský depot z Lipan (okr. Kolín)
(Fictive La Tène hoard from Lipany (Kolín District)
pp. 415–426
The hoard of (reportedly) La Tène iron artefacts from Lipany (two knifes, axe, fork, ploughshare) has been appearing in literature for more than thirty years. The analysis of primary sources from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries demonstrates that these objects are standard settlement finds. The iron ploughshare that does not have an analogy in La Tène Period possibly dates to Roman Period, or (more probably) to the High Middle Ages. The (reportedly) La Tène hoard from Lipany is just fiction created by erroneous interpretation of the National Museum records.

Keywords: La Tène Hoard from Lipany; Finds from the 19th Century; Collection of the National Museum; Fictive Assemblage; High Middle Ages;

HLAVATÁ, Jana – VARSIK, Vladimír
Sídlisko autochtónnej panónskej populácie v Rusovciach: Prvé výsledky archeobotanických analýz
(The settlement of the autochthonous Pannonian population in Rusovce: the first results of archaeobotanical analyses)
pp. 427–448
At the time of the Roman occupation, the territory of the later province of Pannonia was inhabited by several native tribes of mostly Celtic origin. The present paper deals with the Roman rural settlement in Rusovce (in the hinterland of the Gerulata castellum), which the authors consider to be a testimony of the survival of the indigenous population far into the Roman period. Throughout the 2nd century, the settlement had a distinctive autochthonous character, and it was not until the 3rd century that its architectural appearance began to undergo transformation and Romanisation. The results of archaeological excavations document how the inhabitants of the settlement gradually yielded to the globalising pressure of the Roman culture. An archaeobotanical analysis of macrobotanical remains indicates that the cultural transformation of the settlement may have been reflected also in the agricultural sphere. The second century contexts differ from the third century ones in the proportion of plant species and the density of finds. While archaeobotanical assemblages dated to the 2nd century have significantly higher proportions of cereals, the later assemblages generally contain fewer finds and the species ratio is more equal.

Keywords: Roman Period; Settlement; Pannonia; Autochthonous Population; Archaeobotany;

La Tène Bone and Antler Artefacts from Bratislava – Zlaté Piesky
(Laténske kostené a parohové predmety z lokality Bratislava – Zlaté Piesky)
pp. 449–456
In the end of the Iron Age, the Middle Danube region saw a significant change in the ethnic composition of its population. From the second half of the 5th century BC, the area was gradually settled by Celtic tribes. Later, in the Late La Tène period, its favourable position at the crossroads of long-distance roads attracted the Boii tribe, who raised an oppidum on the Bratislava castle hill. Several settlements were established in the larger hinterland of the oppidum. One of them is the settlement at Zlaté Piesky, where a notable concentration of worked bones and antler was recorded during an archaeological excavation.

Keywords: Bone; Antler; La Tène Period; Bratislava; Small Finds;

New Finds of Decorated South Gaulish Terra Sigillata in the Foreland of Brigetio
(Nové nálezy reliéfne zdobenej juhogalskej terry sigillaty v predpolí Brigetia)
pp. 457–463
The foreland of Brigetio, situated north of the confluence of the Danube and Váh rivers, and especially the area of the lower course of the Nitra and Žitava rivers, was rather densely settled by the Quadi population in the Roman period. The most distinctive site among the archaeologically attested settlements is Chotín-Delihegy, mainly due to its location near the Pannonian frontier and the abundant provincial products. The Roman finds date this native settlement roughly to the period between the 2nd and 4th centuries AD. They include a large collection of terra sigillata (234 pcs), which consists mainly of products made in the potters’ centres of Rheinzabern and Westerndorf mostly in the Severan period. Previous knowledge of the Roman-German relations in this region has been significantly altered by a systematic survey conducted in the cadaster of Chotín in recent years. Terra sigillata formed a significant portion of the newly acquired material, outnumbering the previously known finds almost twice (an increase by 415 pcs). Equally important is the range of this collection, with products earlier unrecorded at Chotín and the adjacent region of barbaricum. These include two fragments of decorated bowls made in South Gaulish workshops in the period between the end of the 1st century and the first half of the 2nd century AD.

Keywords: Terra Sigillata; South Gaul; Barbaricum; Slovakia; Roman Period;

MANGEL, Tomáš – JOŠKOVÁ, Tereza
East Bohemian finds of belt segments with a central knob and side plates as evidence of interregional contacts during the La Tène period
(Východočeské nálezy opaskových článků se středovým vývalkem a postranními destičkami jako doklad interregionálních kontaktů v době laténské)
pp. 465–480
Eastern Bohemia is one of the most easterly situated areas with evidence for La Tène occupation in Bohemia. Its geographical location also corresponds with a more frequent occurrence of items which can be taken for evidence of contacts with the Middle Danube region or generally with areas situated to the southeast. The region‘s southeastern ties are demonstrated by selected specific features of funerary practices but also by certain artefacts with parallels in those regions. Artefactual evidence for such contacts has become more common over the recent years, in connection with the increasing use of metal detectors. Along with other finds, parts of chain belts consisting of segments with a central knob and side plates, which are usually considered as part of the female attire, also belong to this category. Their occurrence in the Svitavy region, which is the easternmost part of eastern Bohemia, was brought to attention by D. Vích. However, from a viewpoint of settlement geography, these finds are undoubtedly linked to settlement in Moravia during that period. Finds of the mentioned belts which have been made over recent years in the central part of eastern Bohemia also prove their use in areas situated further to the west.

Keywords: Belt; Segments with a Central Knob and Side Plates; La Tène Period; Eastern Bohemia; Middle Danube Region;

MANGEL, Tomáš – VÍCH, David
Skupina nejstarších laténských nálezů z oppida České Lhotice a možnosti jejich interpretace
(A group of the oldest La Tène finds from the oppidum of České Lhotice and the possibilities of their interpretation)
pp. 481–491
The article is dealing with the oldest La Tène features found in the area of the oppidum České Lhotice. From the chronological evaluation of these few artefacts follows that most of them fall within the periods LT B1 and LT C1, although some of them might have survived in the next period as well. The occurrence of such a collection in the area of the oppidum gives rise to several different interpretation views, which are considered in the context of similar assemblages of finds from other oppida in Central Europe.

Keywords: La Tène Period; České Lhotice; Oppida; Pre-Oppidum Finds; Metal Detector Survey;

Nové rímske figurálne plastiky z juhozápadného Slovenska
(New roman figurines from South-Western Slovakia)
pp. 493–500
The article presents new finds of Roman metal figurines which come from collections at Germanic settlements in south-western Slovakia. Two bronze figurines – a small statuette of Mercury and a naked male figure (probably Apollo?) – were discovered in Zvočín. Another small bronze statuette of Amor and a lead figurine of an unidentifiable male deity come from a nearby Germanic settlement in Bohuslavice nad Trnavou. Fragment of a hand with a pouch from a Mercury statuette comes from the settlement in Hronovce-Vozokany nad Hronom. This has increased not only the number of such finds, but also the scale of deities represented in the local Germanic environment. They can be considered evidence of penetration of Roman influences in the spiritual sphere and religious ideas of the Germanic population.

Keywords: Roman Metal Figurines; Germanic Settlements; South-Western Slovakia;

REPKA, Dominik – ŠEBESTA, Bohuslav
Protohistorické a stredoveké sídlisko v Klčove (okres Levoča)
(Protohistoric and medieval settlement in Klčov (Levoča District))
pp. 501–517
Site Klčov – Pod Horou I (Levoča District) was discovered during the highway D1 construction in the year 2012. Excavated were settlement features of the Púchov culture (La Tène and Roman period) and from the High Middle Ages. The aim of the contribution is to analyse the settlement structure and chronological relationships.

Keywords: La Tène Period; Roman Period; Púchov Culture; High Middle Ages; Settlement;

Zoomorfná plastika z pohrebiska vekerzugskej kultúry v Preseľanoch nad Ipľom
(The zoomorphic figurine from the burial ground of the Vekerzug culture in Preseľany nad Ipľom)
pp. 519–530
The article deals with the origin and identification of the representation of a bronze figurine of an animal from the burial ground of the Vekerzug culture in Preseľany nad Ipľom, Levice District, Slovakia. The figurine from grave 34 is convex on the front and flat on the back and several features suggest that it represents a feline beast. Looking for analogies to the zoomorphic figurine the attention is turned first to the numerous Scythian metal ornaments created in animal style. Another distinct feature – the plastic disc with radial grooves on the shoulder and head of the figurine – is pointed out, too. Such motif does not occur on figurines created in the Scythian animal style. It is represented mainly on decorations with whirling ornaments or on accented details of zoo- or anthropomorphic depictions in the Thracian-Getae environment. The suggested context supports the assumption that the zoomorphic figurine from Preseľany nad Ipľom is the product of some local workshop.

Keywords: Vekerzug Culture; Burial Ground; Zoomorphic Figurine; Interpretation;

Dobrodružství studia bojovnického hrobu odkrytého v Novém Bydžově v roce 1883
(The adventure of the study of a warrior grave uncovered in Nový Bydžov in 1883)
pp. 531–542
Results of the traditional analysis of the fund of finds from the warrior grave uncovered in August 1883 at a La Tène burial ground at the site of Otmarka in the area of former Schnabel’s brickyard on the southern edge of Nový Bydžov, Hradec Králové District, allow chronological classification of this unit to the end of stage LT B2 – beginning of stage LT C1 with significant references to close relationships with the East La Tène environment. Use of computer tomography with identification of – in the Czech Republic – previously unknown engraved decoration of a scabbard opens brand new opportunities to learn about La Tène industry and its context.

Keywords: La Tène Civilisation; Warrior Graves; Bohemia; Sword Scabbard Decoration; Computer Tomographie; Iron Belts Ceretolo and En Échelle-Types;

Nové žiarové pohrebisko z lokality Levoča – Novoveská cesta. Príspevok k osídleniu Spiša v dobe rímskej
(The new cremation cemetery in Levoča – Novoveská cesta. A contribution to the settlement of Spiš region in the Roman period)
pp. 543–562
In 2017, a rescue excavation was carried out in Levoča, site Novoveská cesta, during which six cremation graves were discovered. The cemetery could be dated to the Roman Period – periodical stage Eggers C1, or more precisely between the periods Eggers B2/C1 – C1. The grave assemblages, funerary rite as well as the whole context of Roman Period cultural history in eastern Slovakia suggests that discovered graves most probably belonged to the Przeworsk culture. Presented paper describes the find situation, excavation methods, typo-chronological analysis of the artefacts as well as short evaluation of discovered finds in terms of cultural history of the region.

Keywords: Spiš; Burial Ground; Roman Period; Przeworsk Culture;

Publikačná etika časopisu Studia Historica Nitriensia / Publication Ethics of the Studia Historica Nitriensia Journal / Veröffentlichung Ethik des Zeitschrifts Studia Historica Nitriensia - pp. 563–566

Pokyny pre autorov/Instructions for the authors/Hinweise für Autoren - pp. 567–570

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