OBSAH / CONTENTS
ŠTÚDIE / ARTICLES
Vpády husitov a ich posádky v Uhorsku v rokoch 1432 – 1435
(The Hussite Invasions and Hussite Garrisons in the Kingdom of Hungary in the Period 1432 – 1435)
The study is directed towards the period of the Hussite invasions of the Kingdom of Hungary in the period 1432 – 1435 and the activity of the Hussite garrisons. The year 1432 marked a turning point in the Hussite invasions of Hungary. The Hussites began to systematically establish garrisons in Hungary. Skalica, Trnava, Lednica and Topoľčany were gradually conquered. This reinforced the position of the Hussite garrison at Likava, previously the only one. The Hussite garrisons in Hungary all belonged to the sphere of interest of the Moravian Hussites. This is confirmed by the fact that each of these garrisons had some connection with Moravia, most frequently involving the origin of the commander. The departure of the garrisons was gradual and payment of ransom was more frequent than military conquest.
Hussite revolution. Hussite garrisons. Sigismund of Luxembourg.
Szechényi-Kollonichov chudobinec v Bratislave v kontexte transformácie systému sociálnej starostlivosti v Uhorsku v ranom novoveku
(The Szechényi-Kollonich Poorhouse in Bratislava in the Context of the Transformation of the System of Social Care in the Kingdom of Hungary in the Early Modern Period)
The study is concerned with the history of the Szechényi-Kollonich Poorhouse in Bratislava in the 18th century in the context of the transformation of the system of social care in the Kingdom of Hungary in this period. The charitable institution, originally administered by the Order of the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star, gradually came under the direct control of the Governor’s Council. Apart from the growing influence of the state, the Knights of the Cross with the Red Star had to deal with interventions in their responsibilities from the archbishops of Esztergom and to find a way to co-exist with the city and its authorities.
History. Kingdom of Hungary. Szechényi-Kollonich Poorhouse in Bratislava. Changes in the system of social care in 18th century Hungary.
Koncept lojality. Postoj k autoritám na Slovensku počas prvej svetovej vojny
(The Concept of Loyalty. Attitudes to the Authorities in Slovakia during the First World War)
The social impact of the First World War disturbed the illusions and attitudes of various groups of people towards the old authorities to varying extents. During the war, the traditional sources of social solidarity were largely exhausted. To secure obedience to binding rules, the state greatly extended its power over the citizens. It abolished town and village self-government, limited the number of societies, cooperatives and trade unions, restricted freedom of the press and strengthened the police force. The loyalty of the majority of citizens to the state did not have the form of active support, but only of passive acceptance of the political system. The attitudes of groups of inhabitants to the Kingdom of Hungary was closely connected with the hierarchization of national or ethnic relations.
History. Kingdom of Hungary. First World War. Loyalties in Slovakia.
Charakter rakúskych a slovenských kresťanských odborov v prvej polovici 20. storočia
(The Character of Austrian and Slovak Christian Trade Unions in the First Half of the 20th Century)
The phenomenon of various economic, cultural, farmers’ and workers’ societies or similar organizations, which drew the voter into social and political activity, was characteristic of the structure of the political environment in Czechoslovakia and Austria after the First World War. The social democrats became the strongest political group after the war in both Czechoslovakia and Austria. After losing their dominant political position in both countries, they retained a leading position in the trade union movement. Since the representatives of the Christian political parties could not be indifferent to the ideological orientation of the workers, they also engaged in the working class environment by means of their own trade union organizations. Various Christian trade union organizations operated in Slovakia, where, in contrast to Austria, appropriate conditions for their activity emerged only after the origin of Czechoslovakia. The Slovak Christian Social Trade Union Association gradually gained the most important position among them. It was under the influence of the Slovak People’s Party. As in Austria, the Christian trade unions were always in a minority position in comparison with the Free Trade Unions connected with the social democrats. However, after the removal of democracy and the establishment of a monopoly in the area of trade unions, the Christian trade unionists gained a dominant position in the trade union movement. After the Anschluss of Austria to Germany many Christian trade unionists suffered from Nazi persecution. After the break up of the Czechoslovak Republic, the Christian trade unions were the only legally operating Slovak trade union organization, but they still had to end their activity in the period of the Slovak Republic.
History. Czechoslovakia. Austria. Christian trade union organizations.
Pokus o konštruovanie marxistického národného príbehu v rokoch 1948 – 1955
(The Attempt to Construct a Marxist National Story in the Period 1948 – 1955)
The study is concerned with the development of Slovak historical science in the period 1948 – 1955. Its institutional and personal development is analysed, together with the methods of control and direction by the communist regime. The main interest is devoted to the problems of applying Marxism to Slovak historiography. The second part of the study consists of an outline of the way Marxist historiography interpreted and evaluated the key periods of Slovak history. Attention is also devoted to the formation of the Marxist periodization of Slovak history. The result was a framework for the Slovak Marxist national story, used in later synthetic works.
National story. Ľudovít Holotík. Marxist historiography. Academic research institutions.
ROZHĽADY / HORIZONS
MAJO Juraj – KUSENDOVÁ Dagmar
Etnické a náboženské pomery Slovenska v polovici 19. storočia podľa Geografického slovníka Uhorska od Eleka Fényesa z roku 1851
(The Ethnic and Religious Situation in Mid 19th Century Slovakia According to the Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Hungary by Elek Fényes from 1851)
The ethnic and religious structure of the inhabitants of the territory of present day Slovakia underwent various changes over the centuries, with the ethnic structure changing most substantially in the period from the second half of the 19th century to the end of the Second World War. The article analyses the ethnic and religious structure of the population in the mid 19th century, before the period of maximal Magyarization, which ended with the break up of Austria-Hungary. The data collected in the first half of the 19th century by the Hungarian statistician and researcher of national subjects Elek Fényes, was published in various works. In this article, we publish data from his Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Hungary, published in 1851. Apart from data about the ethnic and religious character of communities, it includes supplementary information about their history, agriculture or location. The information about religious structure is the only numerical data on the population of almost every community and represents one of the oldest sources documenting the religious structure of the population on the village or community level in Hungary after the stabilization of religious conditions by the issuing of the Patent of Toleration in 1781.
Ethnic and religious situation. Slovakia. 19th century. Historical demography. E. Fényes.
ARCHÍV / ARCHIVES
Cesta Bonaccorsa Pittiho do Uhorska roku 1376
(The Journey of Bonaccorso Pitti to the Kingdom of Hungary in 1376)
The chronicle of the Florentine merchant and traveller Bonaccorso Pitti (born 1354 – died after 1430) belongs to the group of so-called Diarii, which mostly have a personal or family character. Their aim was preserve a record of the deeds and achievements of a particular member of a family, not only for reasons of national pride, but to secure the future political influence of the family in the changing political conditions of Renaissance Florence. As a member of an important merchant family, Pitti often travelled in his youth to learn business skills. He travelled to Hungary in 1376, met various Florentines in Budapest, becameseriously ill and was fortunately healed. He visited the home of the count of the Budapest Mint Bartolomeo di Guido Baldi from Florence and won some money by gambling. He spent the money on a horse and returned home to Florence via Venice. This episode of his life is a useful part of his chronicle. Among other things, it provides data about the routes by which Italian merchants travelled to Hungary.
Florence. Kingdom of Hungary. Middle Ages. Chronicles. Trade. Coins. Travel.
RECENZIE / REVIEWS
KEPARTOVÁ Jana (ed.), Antika? Zajděte do kina, přečtěte román (Pavol Valachovič) S. 759
Die Ministerratsprotokolle Österreichs und der Österreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie 1848-1918 (Dušan Kováč) S. 762
BOBRÍK Miroslav, Nemecká menšina na Slovensku a jej telovýchovné a športové aktivity v rokoch 1918 – 1945 (Dušan Kováč) S. 763
ŠTAIGL Jan – ŠTEFANSKÝ Michal, Vojenské dejiny Slovenska. VI. zväzok 1945 – 1968 (Jan Pešek) S. 766
Slovenská historiografia 2005 (Alžbeta Sedliaková) / Slovak Historiography in 2005 (Alžbeta Sedliaková)
KRITIK – GLOSSEN – BIBLIOGRAPHIE – CHRONIK