Bohemia 45 (2005), 1

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Bohemia 45 (2005), 1
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München 2004: Oldenbourg Verlag
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Bohemia. Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Kultur der böhmischen Länder
Dr. Stephanie Weiss, Collegium Carolinum e.V., Hochstr. 8, 81669 München
Jaroschka, Gabriele

Liebe Listenmitglieder,

soeben ist ein neues Heft der Bohemia erschienen.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Gabriele Jaroschka
Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag



Miroslav Hroch
Eugen Lembergs „Nationalismustheorie“
Eugen Lemberg’s contribution to the theory of nationalism
The author follows a twofold approach to Lemberg’s work on nationalism. For once, looking back on first reading the book in the mid-1960s, he relates what he thought inspiring at the time – the perspective encompassing Europe as a whole and the sense for social relations, among other things – and what he deemed unacceptable, such as Lemberg’s definition of nationalism. In the second part, he places Lemberg’s work in the broader context of nationalism research. Lemberg is to be credited with having introduced “nationalism” as an analytical term. The objective features of a nation were not negated outright, but rather relegated to the plane of the people’s consciousness of what unites them. In his time, Lemberg, with his interdisciplinary approach combining methods from social and political science with those used in teaching politics, was an exceptional figure. With his focus on Europe as a whole, he stands out from the scientific mainstream as well. His work, however, has not had lasting influence in German research. In an Anglo-American context, it is almost unknown today.

Bedřich Loewenstein
Zu Eugen Lembergs Ideologiebegriff
Eugen Lemberg’s ideology concept
This is an attempt at evaluating the importance of Eugen Lemberg’s theory of ideologies both in relation to the overall merit of Lemberg the sociologist and the intellectual and political background of the 1960s. The concept, largely oriented at roles and functions of ideology, may be understood as an extension of the earlier nationalism concept; ideology’s main attributes being identity transfer and behaviour control. The contemporary background was the critical view of ideology, taken by the Frankfurt school, which Lemberg sharply rejected. His proposition that ideology is inevitable is corroborated in his posthumous work “Anthropologie der ideologischen Systeme” (Anthropology of Ideological Systems). The article critically examines, above all, the problem of secularisation and redeification in our time and age, together with a more general appraisal of the applicability of Lemberg’s ideology concept.

Karin Pohl
Die Soziologen Eugen Lemberg und Emerich K. Francis. Wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Überlegungen zu den Biographien zweier „Staffelsteiner“ im „Volkstumskampf“ und in der Bundesrepublik
The sociologists Eugen Lemberg (1903-1976) and Emerich K. Erancis (1906-1994). Some Thoughts on the Biographies of two Members of the Staffelstein Movement during the “Volkstumskampf” and in the Federal Republic
This is an attempt at a contrastive, parallel biography of the sociologists Eugen Lemberg and Emerich K. Francis. Life and work of both scholars are examined from the phase of the “Volkstumskampf” (nationalities struggle) in the middle of the 1920’s until the Federal Republic of Germany in the 1970s. There are both noteworthy parallels and evident differences as regards their interest in certain research fields, their scholarly approach and methodology. The author assesses how far biographies, critical historical events during their lifetime and the scientific work of the two of them might be interlinked, taking a closer look at the strong influence received by both at college joining the “Hochschulring” of the catholic Staffelstein movement, at how their respective courses of life separated as a consequence of Nazi Germany taking over “Sudeten territory” in what became called the “Anschluss”, at the experience, in the case of Francis, of emigration and return home or, in Lemberg’s case, of war and expulsion, and finally at both of them taking up a new careers in the Federal Republic. The biographies of the two scholars cast light on certain aspects of the historical transformation of social science in the Federal Republic: on one hand the persistence, in Eugen Lemberg’s sociological work, of an essentialist understanding of “people” and “nation” in spite of his writings having stimulated other research, and on the other hand an analytical approach in social sciences, an approach using terminology ideologically purged, gaining gradually more ground.

Hans Lemberg
Kommentar zu den Beiträgen über Eugen Lemberg
Some remarks on the Articles about Eugen Lemberg
Adding to the other contributions in the present issue about the biography and work of Eugen Lemberg (1903-1976), Eugen Lemberg’s son, Hans Lemberg, writing from the perspective of both a contemporary having witnessed most of the relevant events and an historian with an intimate knowledge of recent developments, and relying on first-hand knowledge of his father’s life and the papers he left, furnishes some additional facts and figures, but he also introduces some new aspects on the change in Eugen Lemberg’s political views and on his personal life and career, mostly concerning the period between the 1930s and the 1960s. Thus, a somewhat different view on the person and the relative weight of some aspects in Eugen Lemberg’s work is being sketched.

Eduard Kubů
„Die Bedeutung des deutschen Blutes im Tschechentum“. Der ‚wissenschaftspädagogische‘ Beitrag des Soziologen Karl Valentin Müller zur Lösung des Problems der Germanisierung Mitteleuropas
“What German Blood Means for the czech people”. The “scientific” contribution of the sociologist Karl Valentin Müller towards solving the problem of how to Germanize Central Europe
Analysing so far unused sources from the Prague District State Archive and the archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Czech Republic, the author traces the career of the sociologist Karl Valentin Müller, an important exponent of Nazi racial doctrine and a professor of social anthropology at Charles University in Prague. He takes a closer look at two papers by Müller: In the first one, Müller undertakes to prove that a significant percentage of Czechs belonging predominantly to the upper social strata, had Germans among their ancestors. In the second one, he sketches scenarios of how to deal with the subjugated nations in a Europe once German rule is established. Post-1945, Müller’s career went on essentially unaltered. His biography is exemplary for many members of the national socialist functionary elite who, having managed to camouflage their activities in the Nazi state, where able to continue after the war without fundamental changes. It thus also demonstrates a certain bias pertinent to German historiography together with the strategies of blacking out unwanted facts.

Jonathan Bolton
Mourning Becomes the Nation: The Funeral of Tomáš G. Masaryk in 1937
“I don’t know how many theories there are about what a nation is and how it arises, but I know that in the last few days we’ve seen the nation, that we’ve seen it as clearly as one can see a material object.” Thus wrote journalist Ferdinand Peroutka after the elaborate state funeral of former Czechoslovak president Tomáš G. Masaryk in September 1937. In this article, based on an extensive review of contemporary press accounts, the author traces the treatment of the enormous crowds at Masaryk’s funeral, showing how commentators like Peroutka, Karel Čapek and others represented these multitudes as an orderly, disciplined, solemn, and silent nation that could both feel its loss deeply and remain resolute in the face of external threats. The author examines how the route of the funeral procession superimposed multiple images from Czech history, uniting the “nevermore” of Masaryk’s death to the “always” of memory, and thus enacting a pledge to remain faithful to Masaryk’s ideals (which themselves were variously interpreted). A final consideration of Communist press accounts, some of the few that departed from the quickly established discourse of a subdued and disciplined crowd-nation, shows how indeterminate and unresolved the meanings of these multitudes could become.

Michael Wögerbauer
Die Geschichte der Prager Zeitschrift „Der Kranz“ (1821-1824) und das Scheitern ihrer Nachfolgeprojekte „Elpore“, „Der Pilger“ und „Bohemia“
The history of the prague journal “Der Kranz” (1820-1824) and the failure of its successor projects “Elpore”, “Der Pilger”, and “Bohemia”
The study reconstructs the history of the Prague journal, “Der Kranz” using, for the first time, filed documents. The author succeeds in proving that “Der Kranz” was founded as early as 1820 by Václav Rodomil (Wenzel Richard) Kramerius, modelled upon other projects. Only in July, 1821, however, did it become an official journal, Willibald Schießler taking the post of editor. “Der Kranz” may be characterised as a predominantly entertaining journal in typical Biedermeier fashion, with a lot of space devoted to glorifying Bohemia’s past. Due to clashing personalities and conflicts with the Vienna court censor, editors changed frequently. In December 1822, Schießler was forced to retire because of a conflict with Chief Constable Sedlnitzky. His successor, Adolf Gerle, stood alone at the helm until 1824, when the “more dependable” Karoline von Woltmann became co-editor. Since, on a personal level, there was a great deal of disagreement between them, Gerle elected to leave the journal in March of the same year. As to Woltmann’s departure and the end of the literary ambitions of the “Kranz”, sources give different explanations. Because Viennese and Prague authorities consciously delayed decisions, none of the successor projects could be realized. Only after 1827 did a new generation of journals come into being: the sophisticated “Monatsschrift des vaterländischen Museums” and the rather more entertaining “Bohemia”.


Jirí Pešek
Zeitgeschichtsschreibung in Tschechien als Problem. Notizen zu: Martin Schulze Wessel, Zeitgeschichtsschreibung in Tschechien. Institutionen, Methoden, Debatten
Contemporary history in the Czech Republic as a problem. Notes on: Zeitgeschichtsschreibung in Tschechien. Institutionen, Methoden, Debatten (Historiography on the Most Recent Past in the Czech Republic. Institutions, Methods, Debates) by Martin Schulze Wessel
These remarks on Martin Schulze Wessel’s meritorious study represent an attempt at looking at the problem of contemporary history from a different angle, resulting from Czech research traditions and a broader approach to the research field. They deal with current Czech cultural history on one hand and with the most recent history of the universities on the other and ask why these circles, active in research and in publishing their results as they are, are not being recognized in Czech as well as German contemporary history. In a second part, the author points out that apart from the Institute of Contemporary History (Ústav pro soudobé dějiny) in Prague and the Silesian Institute (Slezský ústav) in Opava there is also the Prague-based Institute of International Relations (Ústav mezinárodních vztahů, ÚMV) and a whole range of university-related institutions in Prague and Ústí nad Labem. All of them contribute in a substantial way to the coverage of contemporary historical topics, not only in history itself but also in research on international relations and in social science.

Martin Schulze Wessel
Zeitgeschichte als internationale Geschichte – Antwort an Jirí Pešek
Contemporary history as international history – a reply to Jirí Pešek
This contribution discusses the applicability of the term “contemporary history” on comparative evaluations of past developments in historiography and suggests that it be used predominantly when referring to the institutions involved. A weakness of the discipline in Germany as well as in the Czech Republic is spotted in the lack of internationalisation. This does not refer to the number of research activities going on, but rather to the terminology used for research into contemporary history reflecting, both in Germany and in the Czech republic, an internationally comparative approach to a much lesser degree than, say, early modern history research.


Zdenka Stoklásková
Die Entwicklung der allgemeinen Kultur. „Kultivierung“ und „Entkultivierung“ der Gesellschaft in den böhmischen Ländern von 1800 bis 2000

Michaela Marek
Kultur als Vehikel und als Opponent politischer Absichten. Deutsch-tschechisch-slowakische Kulturkontakte, Teil I: 19. Jahrhundert bis 1945

Christiane Brenner
Die „sudetendeutsche Geschichtsschreibung“ 1918-1960. Zur Vorgeschichte und Gründung der Historischen Kommission der Sudetenländer

Nina Lohmann
Geschichtsschreibung zu den böhmischen Ländern im 20. Jahrhundert. Wissenschaftstraditionen – Institutionen – Diskurse, Teil II (1938-1989)

Christiane Brenner
Zwangsmigration und neue Gesellschaft in Ostmitteleuropa nach 1945

Martin Zückert
Multiples Erinnern. Zwangsmigration als Objekt einer Streitgeschichte im erweiterten Europa

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