Universität im geteilten Deutschland der 1960er Jahre
Gastherausgeber: Ralph Jessen und Jürgen John
Ralph Jessen, Jürgen John:
Wissenschaft und Universitäten im geteilten Deutschland der 1960er Jahre. Editorial, 7-24
I. 1. Abhandlungen
Uwe Fraunholz, Manuel Schramm:
Hochschulen als Innovationsmotoren? Hochschul- und Forschungspolitik der 1960er Jahre im deutsch-deutschen Vergleich, 25-44
The article examines the university reforms of the 1960s in East and West Germany in a comparative perspective, and asks how they changed the role of universities in the National Innovation Systems. Part 1 establishes the theoretical framework with reference to theories of knowledge society, National Innovation Systems, and innovation culture. Part 2 gives an overview of university policy in the 1960s in both German states. Part 3 explores the discussions about the concentration of research in the FRG which culminated in the establishment of so-called "Sonderforschungsbereiche". Part 4 examines the concentration of research and the establishment of "Sektionen" in the GDR. Part 5 summarizes the main findings. It is argued that reforms in both states were based on the model of "big science" and proved in the long run unsuccessful.
Tobias Kaiser, Rüdiger Stutz, Uwe Hoßfeld:
Modell- oder Sündenfall? Die Universität Jena und die "Dritte Hochschulreform", 45-69
The article portrays Jena university at the end of the 1960s. During this time the traditional German university system with faculties and institutes was abolished at the universities in the GDR, a process called the "Dritte Hochschulreform" (Third university reform), and other changes to how universities traditionally worked were made as well. This was seen, depending on ones political views, either as a "Model" of university reform or criticized as "The Fall", the end of the autonomous university. There is no doubt that the "Dritte Hochschulreform" was initiated and governed from the communist leadership in Berlin. The orders from Berlin were however interpreted in an independent manner and some heads of department tried to use the reform process to retain old possibilities or to create new ones. The economic policies of the GDR and the scientism of the Ulbricht era, which aimed at scientific progress, can be seen as the main force behind the "Dritte Hochschulreform". Jena, with its industrial base in the Zeiss combine, was the target for grand plans for expanding the city as well as its industries and university. Although these plans failed, the structural change left a lasting impression upon the university. The integration of engineering, something new for a traditional university, as well as the removal of pharmacy and agriculture, were important changes that were in fact implemented.
Ansatzpunkte und Hindernisse der Hochschulreform in der Bundesrepublik der sechziger Jahre: Studienreform und Gesamthochschule, 71-90
In the history of the German universities the sixtieth and early seventieth of the 20th century represent a period of rapid change and at the same time astonishing continuity. In response to the manifold challenges the universities had to face (above all the enormously rising number of enrolments) and corresponding to the general political climate of the time remarkable efforts were made to reform some of the traditional features of the Humboldtian university. The article deals with two particularly significant initiatives: on the one hand the recommendations of the Science Council (Wissenschaftsrat) to alter the patterns of study (Studienreform), on the other hand the attempt to establish new institutional structures for a more integrated higher education (Gesamthochschule). Both proposals were of rather limited success. One important reason for the failure of the reform-initiatives can be identified in the opposition of important segments of the academic estabilshment against a rupture with the time-honoured core-principles of the Humboldtian university.
Wissenschaft und Wirtschaft. Die Entstehung des Faches "Verfahrenstechnik" im ost- und im westdeutschen Hochschulwesen der 1950er und 1960er Jahre, 91-105
The paper deals with the "narrow coupling" (Weingart) of science and economy in the establishment of the discipline "process engineering" at the universities in East- and West-Germany. This example elucidates the role of the universities for the regional economic development and points to the "narrow coupling" of university, industry and politics. The discipline "process engineering" is an applied science which developed at the frontier of the traditional disciplines chemistry and mechanical engineering. While at the American universities process engineering was institutionalized in "Chemistry Departments" (until 1925 14 chairs "of chemical engineering" were founded), in Germany process engineering was treated as a subject of mechanical engineering. The institutionalisation took part mainly after the Second Word War, when the country was divided in East- and West-Germany. Thus the similar orientation of process engineering towards the mechanical engineering in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and the Federal Republic Germany (FRG) gives evidence of professional identity of German engineers in both states.
Wissenschaftsaustausch im geteilten Deutschland. Naturwissenschaftler in den deutsch-deutschen Beziehungen der 1960er Jahre, 107-121
Despite the separation of the two German states in 1945, the exchange between scientists from the Federal Republic and the German Democratic Republic did not stop. Intense connections lasted throughout the 1960s. Not until 1958, when the GDR abandoned the idea of a common German nation, the SED tightened the restriction for traveling to the West. Moreover, after the erection of the wall in 1961 East German scientists were prohibited to attend conferences in the Federal Republic for some time. But the scientists protested against these measures and warned Walter Ulbricht that the isolation of the East German universities would have fatal consequences for the scientific development of the GDR. During the reform era in the 1960s these protests were temporarily successful: The travel restrictions were partly revoked. Until then the scientific exchange between the both German states relied on the personal networks of scientists. The SED was not able to control these networks. This lack of control was the reason why the ruling party stopped the travel of scientists between East and West Germany again in 1968. In the early 1970s the proceedings for approving any travel to the West were reorganized. With the establishment of the so called "Reisekadersystem" the SED gained efficient control about the scientific exchange with West Germany.
Wettkampf um Gerechtigkeit. Frauenförderung und Arbeiterkinder in den Hochschulreformdebatten in Ost und West, 123-142
In both German states, the 1960s represented a break with previous educational policy. Both shared high expectations of education as a means of social mobility and a measure of equality. In the GDR, which experienced a burst of enthusiasm for educational reform immediately after its founding, women were now put on the political agenda after having taken a back seat to workers and peasants in the 1950s. In the Federal Republic, where educational policy in the 1950s tended to take up where the Weimar Republic had left off, interest now shifted to tapping previously unused talents. Parallel to the East German debate, here, too the emphasis was initially on promoting children, or more precisely, sons, from working-class families, who had previously been able to make little use of their right to higher education. As in the GDR, women were only really discovered as a further educational reserve ten years later, and in the Federal Republic it was not until the 1970s that they could be celebrated as the winners of educational reform. On both sides of the border, moral and economic arguments in educational policy pretty much balanced each other out. The sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf's ideal of a modern society centered on education in many ways resembled the "educated nation" of which East German educational reformers dreamed. Both states sought to remove old privileges in the educational sector and, by including previously excluded social strata, to render education accessible to all. What is more, the rejection and erosion, respectively, of the middle-class monopoly on education was propagated as an economic necessity. From this perspective, it was possible to justify according secondary importance to promoting women in higher education, which was deemed subordinate to improving the chances of young men from working-class backgrounds. In both the GDR and the Federal Republic, the demands of female students and university graduates were mentioned in the same breath as the uncertainness of their "social usability". Although participants in the debates argued in terms of both the individual right to and the economic need for education, educational theorists and policymakers in East and West refused to acknowledge each others' moral impulses towards reform and accused each other of pursuing exclusively economic interests. It was just this type of comparison that reinforced both sides in exaggerating the moral superiority of their own "fairer" system. It was not least this German-German entanglement that contributed to the duration, intensity, and emphasis of the debates about educational policy in the 1960s.
Auf der Suche nach der ‚akademischen Heimat': Flüchtlingsprofessoren in Westdeutschland, 143-156
The integration of professors and lecturers who came as refugees to West Germany after 1945 followed the traditional patterns of recruitment under the specific conditions of the reconstruction-period of West German universities. Once accepted as a faculty member they regained their former social status. For those of the 1800 professors and lecturers who faced problems regaining a post contact with fellow refugees proved to be of practical value. Newly founded associations demanded state aid and vehemently rejected all accusations which supposedly discredited the group of the refugee scholars as a whole. Their reference to academic traditions of their former universities culminated in the idea of founding an exclusive Ostuniversität. Equally remarkable are the hopes which they pinned on their status as former civil servants. The laws which put article 131 of the federal constitution into practice materially safeguarded the professors and paved the way to newly created posts. Similar schemes were initiated for younger scholars from the GDR who fled to West Germany until 1961. In contrast to their older colleagues they also profited from the expansion of West German universities at the beginning of the 1960s.
I. 2. Abhandlungen
Die Universität Lemberg und ihre Historiker (1784-1914). Eine vergleichende Perspektive zur deutschen und österreichischen Entwicklung, 157-183
Historians at the University of Lemberg (1784-1914): a comparative perspective with the German and Austrian case. The paper consists of four sections: (1) An outline of the political history of Galicia under Austrian rule in order to understand the turning point of 1867. (2) An outline of the history of Austrian universities in order to understand the turning points of 1849 and 1871 within the history of the University of Lemberg. (3) A chronology of the chairs in history at the University of Lemberg, i.e. a biographical survey with emphasis on the recruitment and training of chairholders. (4) "Schools of historiography" at those Austrian and German universities which the Lemberg historians had visited when they were students, i.e. the universities of Vienna, Breslau, Berlin and Göttingen. A network-analysis studying teacher-student-relations in the German-speaking academic world reveals sharp contrasts between different centres of historical thought and training, among them the universities of Berlin and Göttingen as strongholds of the historicist paradigm and of great attraction for the historians-to-be at the University of Lemberg.
Weder Kombattanten noch Kommilitonen. "Feindliche Ausländer" in einer deutschen Universitätsstadt während des Ersten Weltkrieges, 185-210
During the 19th century German universities were considered model institutions all over the world and therefore attracted more than half of the total number of students studying abroad. The reorientation of both students and the international academic community which occurred during World War I might be attributed to the commitment on the part of German professors to ideological warfare. However, one should also examine the actual experience of foreign students in Germany during the war. Focussing on students from Tsarist Russia in Göttingen, this article discusses how enemy aliens were treated by the authorities, by their instructors and by fellow students. When foreign students were taken into protective custody at the outbreak of war, a number of professors acted as their guarantors and thereby made their release possible. On the other hand, official regulations precluded them from continuing their studies. And even those who could obtain special permission to do so were no longer considered fellow students by their German peers. At the same time, state authorities prevented enemy aliens from performing their military duty by denying them the right to leave. Nevertheless, they did not send students to internment camps, but allowed them to stay in town. Thus, the evidence is mixed: Students were treated as enemy aliens, but compared to other members of this group, they enjoyed a certain amount of relief. And the acknowledgement by the authorities of the "particular conditions of the university town of Göttingen" might suggest a reconsideration of the thesis that the period of 1914-1918 triggered a development towards total war.
"... die Grundgedanken des Nationalsozialismus aufsaugen und verarbeiten". Die politisch-ideologische Funktion der Medizinischen Fakultät der Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel 1933-1945, 211-234
Already at the beginning of the thirties the open commitment to the NS-ideology of some professors and several students of the university of Kiel is well documented. In 1933 after the overtake of the Nazis the Kiel university should serve as an academic fortress against North Europe. In this article the different strategies to transform once a liberal university into a strictly NS-fascistic oriented one is analysed. The focus is on the engagement of the professors, lecturers and students of the medical faculty. It can be proven, that beside members of the law school, several staff members of the medical faculty had taken active part on different levels in the academic management to enforce the NS-ideology at the university. Clinicians and medical scientists in the position of rectors, deans, and leaders of the NS-federation of German university lecturers (NS-Dozentenbund) as well as the medical students in the students organisations were involved in this process. They strove to bring the whole university from within in line with a NS-conform institution.
Zwischen Selbsthilfe und "politischem Mandat". Zur Geschichte der verfassten Studentenschaft in Deutschland, 235-243
In the essay Rohwedder argues that the discussion about the "verfasste Studentenschaft" which has been continuing for the last 30 years could not have led to a satisfactory result, because it has never seriously taken into consideration the historical circumstances of the emergence of this special German legal form of students' representation. Most of all, this shortcoming appears in the disputed question of the "political mandate", namely whether or not the student representatives have the right to express political opinions without reference to university matters. Referring to the political and pedagogical intentions of the Prussian university reformer C. H. Becker as well as the Allied "re-education" efforts after World War II, Rohwedder pleads for maintaining the compulsory organization of the "Studentenschaft" but also for a moderate and sensible dealing with the political mandate by its representatives.
III. Aus den Universitätsarchiven
Klaus Jochen Arnold:
"Dubito ergo sum" - Der Rechtswissenschaftler Fritz von Hippel (1897-1991), 245-252
Fritz Richard Ferdinand von Hippel was born on April 28, 1897 in Rostock. One of his ancestors was the famous Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel, philosopher and friend of Immanuel Kant. Fritz von Hippel was appointed professor at the University of Frankfurt am Main in 1931 and moved to Marburg 1941. From 1951 to 1965 teacher of Civil Law, International Private Law and Philosophy of Law at the University of Freiburg im Breisgau, he died in 1991. Since 1997 the archive of the University of Freiburg is in hold of his estate, which mainly contains correspondence, for example with his colleagues Arnold Ehrhardt, Fritz Pringsheim, Max Rheinstein, Franz Beyerle or Arnold Gysin. This article gives a brief outline of his life with focus on his dissident behaviour during the period of National Socialism.
Quellen und Hilfsmittel zur Geschichte der Medizinischen Fakultät der Berliner Universität im Nationalsozialismus, 253-259
The article presents a general view about the records to the history of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Berlin during the period of National Socialism in three important archives: the Bundesarchiv, the Geheimes Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz and the archive of the Humboldt University, all of them in Berlin. There is given a description of the records which are important for historical research on the history of this faculty during the Nazi period. This description focuses on the records of the university, the state (Prussia and the Third Reich) and the Nazi party. Furthermore, the article presents a short description of important resources for biographical research on famous professors of the faculty.
Universitätsgeschichte als Personengeschichte: Neuere Studien zur mittelalterlichen universitas, 261-264
Neues zur russisch-sowjetischen Universitätsgeschichte, 265-268
Rüdiger vom Bruch:
Neuere Gesamtdarstellungen, Überblickswerke und Spezialstudien zur Universitätsgeschichte, 268-272