Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 54 (2006), 1

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Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 54 (2006), 1
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München 2006: Oldenbourg Verlag
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Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte
Redaktion Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Leonrodstraße 46b, 80636 München,
Jaroschka, Gabriele

Liebe Listenmitglieder,

soeben ist das neueste Heft der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte erschienen.

Mit freundlichen Grüßen
Gabriele Jaroschka
Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag



Hermann Graml: Massenmord und Militäropposition. Zur jüngsten Diskussion über den Widerstand im Stab der Heeresgruppe Mitte.
Hermann Graml, Mass murder and military opposition. Some remarks on the resistance within Heeresgruppe Mitte.
The role played by the Wehrmacht in the Third Reich, especially the participation of the armed forces in war crimes and in the Holocaust, has been a very important subject of incisive analysis. The judgements have often been harsh, whereas other authors wanted to demonstrate that those judgements were too sweeping. It is evident that this important controversy will continue for some time. In recent studies published in this periodical, the verdict on the army has been extended to officers who had been opposed against Hitler at a very early time. It has been claimed that even those officers had belonged to "Hitler's willing executors", at least in some respects and for a certain time. When they turned against Hitler, they allegedly did so rather for military reasons than for their anti-Nazist convictions that were based on moral grounds.
This essay tries to show that the latest indictments go too far indeed and are in important parts unfounded. However, it is intended only as a contribution to an ongoing discussion.

Otmar Jung: Der literarische Judenstern. Die Indizierung der "jüdischen" Rechtsliteratur im nationalsozialistischen Deutschland.
Otmar Jung, "Jewish" juridical literature on the index in the Third Reich. A study on the organisation of exclusion.
Even before the "Nuremberg laws" were issued, a macabre competition had started to put "Jewish" juridical literature on the index, or rather to generally exclude "Jewish" authors. A citizen who owned a long respected publishing house went ahead, several party offices pursued relevant projects, Carl Schmitt ventured forth in this respect on the Berlin "Jews Conference" in 1936, and from 1941 the German Library in Leipzig officially worked on a "Bibliography of Jewish Literature in German". These competing activities, which were typical for the regime, were fuelled by an oppressive eagerness, and they produced many "lists" and much quarrel, but above all, the whole enterprise was in danger of becoming counter-productive. Those indices that were intended to discriminate against Jewish scholars and that were quite useful to exclude the Jews "made the great achievements and the lasting services of German scholars of Jewish descent to jurisprudence and practical law in Germany obvious to the world" (Horst Göppinger).

Petra Terhoeven: Eheringe für den Krieg - die Geschichte eines faschistischen Gedächtnisorts.
Petra Terhoeven, Wedding rings for war - connotations in remembering fascism.
On December 18, 1935, milfwomlions of Italian couples exchanged their golden wedding rings for cheap imitations made from iron. After the Italian attack on Ethiopia, the League of Nations had imposed economic sanctions on the aggressor which seemed to justify extraordinary measures in financial policy. Yet, the increase in state revenue was only a secondary function of the "Day of the Wedding Ring". First and foremost, the unity of the people and the fascist leadership was to be demonstrated by this significant sacrifice. The event was staged as a mystic communion of the donators with the fatherland at war. On the basis of retrospective memoirs by contemporary witnesses and their relatives, this essay investigates the consequences of fascist history policy. It becomes evident that the donation of wedding rings in 1935 has deeply marked the memories, especially of Italian women, until today. Although the event evokes negative memories in a great majority of the contemporaries, the really problematic facts that led up to the donation - i.e. the colonial war that was not in accordance with international law, as well as the generally criminal character of the conduct of this war - are completely blended out in the memoirs in question. The author interprets these findings as a result of a collective repression of memory which serves the need for meaningfulness felt by individuals, by families and by the whole nation, and which is therefore hard to break.

Gert C. Lübbers: Die 6. Armee und die Zivilbevölkerung von Stalingrad.
Gert C. Lübbers, The 6th German army and the civilian population of Stalingrad.
In the run-up to the battle of Stalingrad Hitler intended to exterminate the civilians in the city. This essay investigates whether and to what extent these plans were realized. It also looks at supposed schemes by the supreme command of the army, especially by the quartermaster general, General Eduard Wagner, to first select those able to work and to leave the rest of the population to starvation. In fact Hitler's intentions to exterminate the population collided with the need the German war economy had for workers. Numerous new sources allow to show in detail where and when the leading German authorities worked out how the civilian population was to be dealt with. In this respect the two months before the German troops were encircled by the Red Army are of special interest. During this time, thousands of civilians fled from the battle that was raging within the city into the rear of the 6th army. This article attempts to shed some light on their fate.

Wolfgang Mueller: Stalin, Renner und die Wiedergeburt Österreichs nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg.
Wolfgang Mueller, Stalin, Renner and the Soviet part in the re-establishment of political structures in Austria in April/May 1945.
On the basis of recently discovered Soviet archival records this article re-assesses the plans and measures of the Soviet and the Austrian Communist Party (KPÖ) for the re-establishment of political structures in Austria after World War II. In the first phase of Soviet operations in April 1945, Stalin ordered Dimitrov to send an "initiative group" of Austrian communists to their country in order to gain political influence there. Another measure envisaged to strengthen communist influence was that other political parties should be prevented from becoming active until the Allied Commission on Austria was set up. Only then was a provisional government to be formed that was to include all anti-fascist democratic parties. When the Red Army entered Austria, it started to set up local administrations consisting mainly of communists. It was only due to the appearance of the veteran social democrat Karl Renner and his offer to re-establish a government that Stalin started the second phase of political action in which a popular front was to be created. The Soviet high command in Austria licensed political parties and Renner to form a provisional government consisting of social democrats, conservatives and communists. Although his cabinet looked like one of the Soviet-installed popular front governments in Eastern Europe, Renner had created several mechanisms that limited communist power. In the first Austrian elections after World War II, the communists suffered a crushing defeat.

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