Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 2 (1998)

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Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte 2 (1998)
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München 1998: Oldenbourg Verlag
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Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte
Redaktion Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte Institut für Zeitgeschichte, Leonrodstraße 46b, 80636 München,
Jaroschka, Gabriele



Rubrik: Aufsaetze

John M. Steiner und Jobst Freiherr von Cornberg
Willkuer in der Willkuer. Hitler und die Befreiungen von den antisemitischen Gesetzen des Dritten Reichs Inhaltsangabe und Zusammenfassung Table of contents and summary

Bernd Rother
Franco und der Holocaust

Bernd Rother, Franco's Spain, the Sephardim and the Holocaust In many things written about Spain's policies during the Second World war it is still maintained that, by generous assistance, the country saved numerous Jews, particularly Sephardim, from being murdered by Germany. The files of the German Foreign Service and those of the Spanish Foreign Ministry, however show another picture. In fact, refugees who merely wanted transit rights to pass through Spain met with little difficulty, but long-term exile in Spain for Jewish refugees, was not considered by the Franco government. Expecially affected were the three thousand Sephardic Jews of Spanish citizenship who lived in German-occupied Europe. At the beginning of 1943, when the German side offered Spain their repatriation, Madrid initially refused the offer. The Spanish government did, actually, soon give way, but it erected bureaucratic hurdles difficult to get over, so that in not a few cases repatriation was blocked by Spanish rather than German resistance.

Valur Ingimundarson
Der "Chef des Kalten Krieges". C.D. Jackson, Psychologische Kriegsfuehrung und die deutsche Frage 1953/54

Valur Ingimundarson, C.D. Jackson, Psychological Warfare, the German Question, 1953/54

This article discusses the evolution of the Eisenhower Administration's Cold War strategy within the German context, in 1953-54. By focusing on the role of C.D. Jackson, Eisenhower's Special Assistant for psychological warfare, it seeks to highlight the basic dilemma facing that strategy: the incompatability between the rhetoric of "liberating" Eastern Europe, including East Germany, from Communism with the pragmatic goal of rearming West Germany and integrating it into the Western Alliance. Using three historical examples - U.S. policy during the transition of power in Moscow after Stalin's death, the American response to the East German uprising and the Berlin Conference on German reunification - it contrasts Jackson's advocacy of a more forceful and dynamic American foreign policy with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles' skepticism about the need for psychological warfare operations in Germany and his conviction about the need for alliances.The author argues that the growing tension between these conflicting tendencies in U.S. Cold War strategy forced the administration to commit itself more firmly to the containment doctrine at the expense of "liberation".

Rubrik: Miszelle

Heike Bungert
Deutsche Emigranten im amerikanischen Kalkuel. Die Regierung in Washington, Thomas Mann und die Gruendung eines Exilantenkomitees

Heike Bungert, The U.S. Government, Thomas Mann and the Creation of a "Council of Free Democratic Germans"

This article aims to refute thelong-held belief that the U.S.government rejected all efforts by emigrés from Hitlerian Germany to establish a free German movement based in the United States. Using recently declassified records of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the wartime U.S. intelligence service, one can establish that both the OSS and the State Department supported, and perhaps even initiated the German Labor Delegation's proposal in August 1943 to create a "Council of Free Democratic Germans" under the directorship of Thomas Mann. The U.S. government wanted to harness the emigrés' potential in order to have a counterweight to the Soviet-inspired Nationalkomitee Freies Deutschland based in Russia. The project came to nothing due to the interference of Paul Hagen, whom the Americans distrusted and, because America feared offending its Soviet ally.

Rubrik: Diskussion

Eckart Conze
Konfrontation und Détente. UEberlegungen zur historischen Analyse des Ost-West-Konflikts Eckart Conze, Confrontation and Détente.

Reflections on the Historical Analysis of the East-West Conflict In disagreement with the essay on the East-West Conflicts by Andreas Wenger which appeared in the VfZ 46 (January 1998), the author sets forth some reflections on the historical analysis, classification and evaluation of the East-West Conflict. Starting by placing discussion within the bounds of "assured political stability" and "peace", he argues for a subtly differentiated employment of the terms, "East-West Conflict" and "Cold War". The "East-West Conflict", going on since 1917, virulent since the final phases of the Second World War, took various forms in fluctuating between the poles of confrontation and détente. The fundamental opposition in ideology and in the concept of political order between East and West remained unchanged until 1989-91. For this reason it is stretching a bit to see the policy of détente in the sixties as directly related to the disintegration of the blocs three decades later. In fact, the mutual recognition of the status quo, dating from 1961 and maintained by power politics, gave the international order a certain measure of stability. Still, the costs of this stability were the nuclear threat and the continuing lack of freedom for the people east of the Iron Curtain.

Rubrik: Dokumentation

Wolfgang Leonhard
Im Fadenkreuz der SED. Meine Flucht von der SED-Parteihochschule "Karl Marx" im Maerz 1949 und die Aktivitaeten der Zentralen Parteikontrollkommission

Wolfgang Leonhard, In the Crosshairs of the SED: My Flight from the SED's Party Leadership-Training Academy "Karl Marx" in March 1949 and the Activities of the Party Central Control Commission

The author describes the causes and the nature of his flight from the SED Party Academy to Yugoslavia in March 1949 and his subsequent activity in Belgrade. Making use of some three hundred pages related to his flight in the files of the Party Central Control Commission of the SED that have become available in the meanwhile, the author analyses the campaign for vigilance, the hunt for spies, the accusations of "Trotzkyism", his expulsion from the party as well as the measures taken by the SED leadership to prevent the spread of his writings published in Yugoslavia. Taking part also in the activities directed at the time against the "renegade Leonhard", were Kurt Hager and Erich Mielke, both of whom were later first-rank officials of the SED. In conclusion, the author makes some inferences about the fight against deviants throughout the SED regime and analyses content, form and results of these ideological-administrative measures.

Rubrik: Notizen

Gesellschaft und Politik in Bayern 1949 bis 1973. Ein neues Projekt des Instituts fuer Zeitgeschichte Dokumentationsstaette am Obersalzberg bei Berchtesgaden

Rubrik: Abstracts

Mitarbeiter dieses Hefts

John M. Steiner
Jobst Freiherr von Cornberg
Bernd Rother
Valur Ingimundarson
Heike Bungert
Eckart Conze
Wolfgang Leonhard

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