Hémecht. Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte 71 (2019), 4

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Hémecht. Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte 71 (2019), 4
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Luxemburg 2019: Editions Saint-Paul
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Hémecht. Revue d’Histoire luxembourgeoise – transnationale, locale, interdisciplinaire / Zeitschrift für Luxemburger Geschichte – transnational, lokal, interdisziplinär
Redaktion Hémecht,Maison des Sciences Humaines, 11, Porte des Sciences, L- 4366 Esch/Belval, Luxemburg
Kmec, Sonja

Das neueste Heft der Hémecht. Zeitschrift für transnationale Luxemburger Geschichte. Transnational, lokal, interdisziplinär wurde von den Amis du Château de Mansfeld gestaltet. Benoît Reiter wertet Archivmaterial aus Luxemburg und Simanca aus, um die Geschichte des Schlosses bzw. seiner Restbauten im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert darzustellen. Der Archäologe Matthias Paulke untersuchte das hydraulische System der Schlossanlage: angesichts der zahlreichen Teiche und Brunnen ein wesentlicher Aspekt des Renaissance-Schlosses. Jérôme Courtoy setzt sich mit der Erzählung vom untergegangenen Clausener Schloss auseinander, die Luxemburger Geschichtsbüchern und andere Medien im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert verbreiteten. Jean-Luc Mousset erläutert, wie das Schloss zum nationalen Denkmal avancierte. Den Abschluss bildet eine Darstellung von Robert Decker und Matthias Paulke, wie es zur digitalen 3D-Rekonstituierung des Schlosses kam, die in einem 15-minütigen Videofilm auch für Lehre und Unterricht zur Verfügung steht. Alle Beiträge sind reich bebildert und bieten neue Perspektiven auf das Renaissance-Schloss.

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Allgemeine Geschichte

Benoît Reiter
Le château de Mansfeld aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Nouvelles découvertes sur la « fontaine Roÿale » dans les Archives de Simancas et les Archives nationales de Luxembourg [The Mansfeld Castle in the 17th and 18th centuries. New discoveries about the « fontaine Roÿale » in the General Archive of Simancas and the National Archives of Luxembourg], S. 391–432

The castle « La Fontaine » was constructed under Peter Ernst, count of Mansfeld (1517-1604) in Luxembourg-Clausen in the years 1563 to 1604. This article examines the subsequent evolution of the domain in the 17th and 18th centuries based on archival documents held by the “Archivo de Simancas” and the “Archives Nationales de Luxembourg”. The General Archive of Simancas helps us to understand how the estate was managed in the name of the Spanish Crown from 1604 to 1626. It reveals the personal interest expressed by King Philip III but also the difficulties resulting both from the distance between the center of the monarchy and the Luxembourg periphery and from the recurrent financial problems of the Crown. Due to dissatisfaction with the local administration, Hans Oberholtzer, who held the military rank of a captain, was nominated as an administrator. This seemed to have ensured for some years the maintenance and survival of the “royal Fountain”, even though the works of art were sent to Spain. Other documents from the National Archives of Luxembourg attest to the dilapidated condition of the estate in the mid-17th century as well as to its continued economic function, supervised by the receiver of the Crown. The usage of the domain by consecutive provincial governors cannot be ascertained for the 17th century, but it can be established for the 18th century.

Following the destructions of the 1683/84 war, the old castle was reused and the brewery was reopened. The gardens were leased to horticulturists of French origins, who took up residence in the large tower of the castle. Around 1720, large-scale construction works were undertaken, presumably at the behest of the governor. At least two of the Crown’s representatives in the Duchy of Luxembourg, the count of Neipperg and the baron/count of Marschall, profited from a large part of the estate, even if it is difficult to assess whether they resided there or merely used the gardens as a source of revenue. During this time, a wash house was reopened and the only portal that was not in ruins, the “Caroline”, was leased out. During the 1760s and 1770s, the receiver supervised constructions to improve the brewery, the castle and the gardens gardens, which accelerated the destruction of the Renaissance palace but allowed for economic activities to develop.

Matthias Paulke
Zur Hydraulik des Mansfeldschlosses in Luxemburg-Clausen [On the hydraulic systems of the Mansfeld Castle in Luxembourg-Clausen]. S. 433–450

This overview of the hydraulic systems of the Mansfeld Castle, which have been archaeologically investigated over the last 16 years, is intended to give the reader an insight into the parts of this water supply and disposal system still preserved today. The author examines the location and function of the hydraulic installations of the Mansfeld Castle and points out divergences between various archival sources and the archaeological findings. Even the development of large parts of the castle and gardens did not destroy all the hydraulic installations. A considerable number of fountains, basins and technical water installations have been excavated in recent years. Considering that there are more than twenty known fountains, the name of the castle “La Fontaine” is self-explanatory.

Jérôme Courtoy
Bild und Deutung des Schlosses „La Fontaine“ im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert [Representations and interpretations of the castle “La Fontaine” in the 19th and 20th century], S. 450–462

In the national narrative, Peter Ernst I of Mansfeld is often portrayed as a defender of Luxembourg during the religious riots of the Eighty Year’s War, a preserver of the “true” Christian faith and a great builder. His prestigious buildings influenced the architecture of early modern Luxembourg and inspired builders for their own projects. Mansfeld’s residence in Luxembourg-Clausen played a pivotal role in this development. In the 19th and 20th century, historians, writers and journalists usually added a chapter about the governor’s residence to their portrayal of Mansfeld. Their interpretations of the “La Fontaine” castle, however, differs greatly. This article looks at these changing representations and interpretations of “La Fontaine” in various Luxembourgish publications between the 1820s and the 1960s.

Jean-Luc Mousset
La patrimonialisation du château Mansfeld à Luxembourg-Clausen [The heritagisation of the Mansfeld-Castle in Luxembourg-Clausen] S. 463–484

The « Mansfeldschlass » provides an interesting case-study for the discussion and display of past remains. The archaeological site of Clausen was ‘rediscovered’ only around 1990 and thus constitutes today one of the most recent historical sites in the country. As a theoretical framework for the events that took place between 2003 and 2019, the author has chosen the analytical grid proposed by Jean Davallon. This reflexive approach to the remains – from their discovery to their handover – appealed to him, as he was personally involved in all phases of the ‘heritagisation’ or patrimonialisation) of this site. This article contends that Davallon’s concept may help all actors and stakeholders to better understand their own contributions, and their sociological or symbolic significance.

Robert Becker, Matthias Paulke
Die 3D-Rekonstitution des Mansfeldschlosses
[The 3D reconstruction of the Mansfeld Castle], S. 285-297

This article retraces the genesis and production of an animated video (15 min.) representing a virtual 3D model of the castle in ten steps. The 3D model is based on plans drawn by hand by the architectural firm Becker & Dansart in the 1990s for a wooden model of the Renaissance castle put on display in the Musée d’Histoire de la Ville de Luxembourg. The plans were digitized in 2015 and a multidisciplinary scientific and technical team was assembled to clarify the many new questions that arose by adding a third dimension and by embedding the model in the topography of the site. Thanks to a private sponsor, Ms Annette Probst, and the help of the “Service Topographie et géomatique”, the “Centre national de recherche archéologique” and the “Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften”, a first version was ready in time for the 500th anniversary of Peter Ernst I of Mansfeld in 2017 and the final version was presented in the National Archives of Luxembourg in 2019.

Buchbesprechungen (Volltext einsehbar auf recensio.net)
S. 499–504

John Scheid, Rezension zu:
Christiane Bis-Worch & Claudia Theune (éds.), Religion, Cultus & Rituals in the medieval rural environment. Religion, Kulte und Rituale in der mittelalterlichen bäuerlichen Umgebung. Religion, cultes et rituels au milieu rural médiéval, (Ruralia XI), Leiden : Sidestone Press, 2017; 396 p.; ISBN 9789088904868 ; 49,95 € (paperback), 150 € (hardback).

Sonja Kmec, Rezension zu:
Violet Soen, Dries Vanysacker & Wim François (Hg.), Church, Censorship and Reform in the Early Modern Habsburg Netherlands (Bibliothèque de la Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique, 101), Turnhout: Brepols, 2017; 240 Seiten; ISBN: 978-2-503-56751-8; 65 €.

Michel Pauly, Rezension zu:
Daniel Poos (avec la collaboration de Chantal Gantrel), Histoire scientifique de la vinification: de la protohistoire aux temps modernes, Esch-sur-Alzette : Éditions Phi, [2019] ; 232 p. ; ISBN : 978-99959-37-57-7 ; 29 €.

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